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The hunt for nonflammable refrigerant blends to replace R-134a.

Author(s) : BELL I. H., DOMANSKI P. A., MCLINDEN M. O., et al.

Type of article: Article, IJR article


We investigated refrigerant blends as possible low GWP (global warming potential) alternatives for R- 134a in an air-conditioning application. We carried out an extensive screening of the binary, ternary, and four-component blends possible among a list of 13 pure refrigerants comprising four hydrofluoroolefins (HFOs), eight hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), and carbon dioxide. The screening was based on a simplified cycle model, but with the inclusion of pressure drops in the evaporator and condenser. The metrics for the evaluation were nonflammability, low GWP, high COP (coefficient of performance), and a volumetric capacity similar to the R-134a baseline system. While no mixture was ideal in all regards, we identified 16 binary and ternary blends that were nonflammable (based on a new estimation method) and with COP and capacity similar to the R-134a baseline; the tradeoff, however, was a reduction in GWP of, at most, 54% compared to R-134a. An additional seven blends that were estimated to be “marginally flammable”(ASHRAE Standard 34 classification of A2L) were identified with GWP reductions of as much as 99%. These 23 “best”blends were then simulated in a more detailed cycle model.

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Format PDF

Pages: 484-495


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  • Original title: The hunt for nonflammable refrigerant blends to replace R-134a.
  • Record ID : 30026636
  • Languages: English
  • Subject: HFCs alternatives
  • Source: International Journal of Refrigeration - Revue Internationale du Froid - vol. 104
  • Publication date: 2019/08
  • DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrefrig.2019.05.035


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