Kyoto Protocol: ratification status

The Kyoto Protocol aims to reduce greenhouse gas (including HFC) emissions in developed countries by at least 5% with respect to the 1990 levels, during the period 2008-2012. The Kyoto Protocol was open for signature as of March 16, 1998 and will enter into force only when it has been ratified by no less than 55 Parties incorporating Parties included in Annex I (developed countries) which accounted for at least 55% of CO2 emissions in 1990. According to the latest UNFCCC status of ratification information (dated April 15, 2004), 84 Parties, representing 44.2% of emissions, have currently ratified. If the Russian Federation (17.4% of CO2 emissions) confirms its intention - expressed by Russian President V. Putin last May - to ratify the Kyoto Protocol, the conditions will then be met for it to enter into force (3 months after the Russian ratification). The head of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), Klaus Toepfer, said last month that he expected Russia to ratify before the next Conference of the Parties (COP-10) scheduled to take place on December 6-17, 2004 in Buenos Aires. More on The UNFCCC Web site provides, for each country, the percentage of total emissions. The site also displays the declarations made by various countries and regions. You can also consult (IIR summaries, glossary, news and useful links).