Low-GWP alternatives in refrigerated transport

An EPA fact sheet provides full details on alternatives to HFCs: R744, R717, hydrocarbons and HFOs, and describes alternative technologies: cryogenic systems, secondary loop systems, eutectic plates, hermetic and semi-hermetic vapour-compression systems and cascade systems.
The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has published a comprehensive fact sheet on Transitioning to low-GWP Alternatives in Transport Refrigeration.
It covers transport at temperatures ranging from -30°C to +16°C in all modes: intermodal containers, rail, road and marine transport. The document takes into account the lifespan of equipment (10-15 years in the case of intermodal containers and 20-25 years for equipment on board ships for instance), refrigerant charge (which ranges from 4.5-7.5 kg for road vehicles, railcars and intermodal containers to 100 to 500 kg for plants on ships).
Demand for HFCs is rising, driven in particular by developing countries. EPA estimates that the refrigerated transport sector accounted for 9% of global HFC consumption in all refrigeration and AC fields.
It also deals with the advantages of various low-GWP foam blowing agents.
A table summarizes challenges to market entry and potential solutions.