Protocole de Montréal sur les substances qui appauvrissent la couche d'ozone. Rapport 2006 du Comité sur les options techniques pour les secteurs du froid, du conditionnement d'air et des pompes à chaleur. Evaluation 2006.

Montreal Protocol on substances that deplete the ozone layer. 2006 Report of the Refrigeration, Air Conditioning and Heat Pumps Technical Options Committee (RTOC). 2006 Assessment.

Auteurs : ONU Environnement (ex-PNUE)

Type de monographie : Rapport


CFCs and HCFCs are still common in installed equipment. The CFC bank is approximately 450,000 tonnes, 70% of which can be found in Article 5 countries. The annual global CFC demand of approximately 50,000 tonnes per year is decreasing slowly. HCFCs form the dominant refrigerant bank, estimated as more than 1,500,000 tonnes, representing 60% of the total amount of refrigerants in use. Current service needs are estimated at 200,000 tonnes per year. Efficient refrigerant recovery at end-of-life and retrofit to non-ODS service refrigerants are essential to avoid HCFC shortages in Article 5 countries. The critical years could be 2009 and 2010 in Europe and later on in the USA and other countries. In applications with high emission rates, such as commercial refrigeration, designs with lower emissions, and conversion to low-GWP refrigerants, such as CO2, are expected. The use of HCs and CO2 in stand-alone commercial refrigeration equipment is expected to grow, mainly in Europe. HFC blends are the most likely near-term refrigerants to replace R-22. The dominant HCFC-22 bank is expected to continue to grow for a number of years, and the HFC bank is expected to increase rapidly, at least during the next decade. The application areas of this report are the following: refrigerants (thermophysical properties; heat transfer and compatibility data); domestic refrigeration technical alternatives available through product life cycle; annual and future refrigerant demand); commercial refrigeration (data on outlets and stand-alone equipment; options for existing and new equipment); industrial refrigeration (food processing, cold storage, process refrigeration, liquefaction of gases, industrial heat pumps and heat recovery, ammonia, HCFC-22, HFCs, CO2, water, absorption/compression cycle; retrofit options for existing systems); transport refrigeration (reefer ships refrigeration and air conditioning on merchant marine, naval and fishing vessels; intermodal refrigerated containers; road transport; refrigerated railcars); air conditioners and heat pumps (small self-contained and split residential and commercial air conditioners; single component HFC refrigerants; HFC blends, hydrocarbon refrigerants, CO2 and alternative refrigeration cycles; anticipated market impact of drop-in and retrofit refrigerants); water-heating heat pumps; chillers (vapour-compression and absorption chillers; refrigerant choice: world market characteristics; options for new positive displacement or centrifugal compressor chillers; alternative technologies); vehicle air conditioning (options for future vehicle air conditioning systems; passenger vehicles, buses and trains); refrigerant conservation (recovery, recycling and reclamation; equipment design and service; examples of conservation approaches). In the annexes: recent global production and consumption data for fluorochemicals. The report can be downloaded from:


  • Titre original : Montreal Protocol on substances that deplete the ozone layer. 2006 Report of the Refrigeration, Air Conditioning and Heat Pumps Technical Options Committee (RTOC). 2006 Assessment.
  • Identifiant de la fiche : 2007-0913
  • Langues : Anglais
  • Sujet : Chiffres, économie, Réglementation, Pays en développement, Environnement, Alternatives aux HFC
  • Édition : Unep (united nations environment programme) - Kenya/Kenya
  • Date d'édition : 01/2007
  • ISBN : 9789280728224
  • Source : Source : 235 p. (21 x 29.7); fig.; tabl.; ref.; append.