IIR document

Novel thermodynamic model for cryo-compressed-hydrogen tanks.

Number: 121



Novel carbon-free drive technologies are required to enable a climate-neutral transport sector. Especially in the heavy-duty truck sector, hydrogen as the fuel of the future for fuel-cell trucks can drive the shift toward sustainable transportation. There are three physical storage technologies for hydrogen: gaseous compressed, liquid, and cryo-compressed.  
In the “CryoTruck” joint project, the focus is on cryo-compressed hydrogen (CcH2) storage. The hydrogen is stored at up to 400 bar and has a temperature range of 30 to 70 K. At these conditions, the hydrogen in the tank can reach a density close to 80 gL-1, which exceeds the density of liquid or gaseous compressed hydrogen.  
The developed thermodynamic model of the hydrogen storage system is demonstrated in illustrative truck drive cycles. The equation system describes the transient thermodynamic behavior of the hydrogen in the tank during the three main scenarios of the truck drive cycle: refueling, driving, and dormancy. By using a fully implicit differential algebraic equation system (DAE), one single model can predict the thermodynamic state independent of any occurring phase change of the hydrogen in the tank. As a result, the dynamic model provides insights into the complete operating range of the truck. It is able to describe phase changes of the hydrogen in the tank from gaseous over two-phase and fully liquid to supercritical, which occur during the refueling process depending on the starting conditions.
The model is further applied to optimize the usable mass of hydrogen in the tank. Since an “empty” tank still contains a residual amount of hydrogen, the usable mass describes the amount of hydrogen that can actually be discharged from the tank. For a tank system with a hydrogen volume of V=0.5 m³, a minimum and maximum pressure of  𝑝𝑝𝑚𝑚𝑁𝑁𝑁𝑁 = 15 𝑚𝑚𝑎𝑎𝑟𝑟 and  𝑝𝑝𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚𝑚 = 400 𝑚𝑚𝑎𝑎𝑟𝑟, a usable mass of 36.9 kg of hydrogen can be stored. 

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  • Original title: Novel thermodynamic model for cryo-compressed-hydrogen tanks.
  • Record ID : 30031052
  • Languages: English
  • Source: Proceedings of the 17th IIR International Conference on Cryogenics, Dresden, Germany, april 25-28 2023
  • Publication date: 2023/04/25
  • DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18462/iir.cryo.2023.0121


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