Briefs: USA

- The US Department of Energy (DOE) has published on August 31 the first energy efficiency standards for refrigerated vending machines. The new standards take effect in 2012 and over the following 30 years, DOE estimates it will save about 47 TWh of energy. In comparison, the US currently uses roughly 29@000 TWh of energy per year. These standards apply to both glass-front and solid-front vending machines representing 2.3 million machines in the US. - The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has granted refrigeration manufacturer Hill Phoenix approval to use CO2 as a replacement for HCFCs in retail refrigeration. The permission came under the EPAfs Significant New Alternatives Policy (SNAP) programme, which evaluates alternatives to substances being phased out to protect the ozone layer. The SNAP approval applies to all other refrigeration manufacturers. In addition to replacing R-22, CO2 can be used to replace HFCs such as R507A and R404A that contribute to global warming. -The Air Resources Board of the California Environmental Protection Agency has published preliminary estimates of the emissions reductions that could be achieved thanks to Californiafs proposed Stationary Equipment Refrigerant Management Program regulation. The proposed measures could lead to a 50% reduction in CO2 emissions from stationary refrigeration and air-conditioning equipment. The overall cost of implementation is estimated to be USD 49 million/year, and refrigerant savings are predicted to be USD 68 million. Overall savings thus should amount to USD 19 million without taking into account higher refrigerant prices, energy savings and reduced emissions.