Cryogenic applications: India
India is developing semi-cryogenic propulsion technology using kerosene as a propellant to enhance its capability to launch satellites in the 6-tonne class. The technology utilizes liquid oxygen and aviation-grade kerosene instead of liquid hydrogen for cryogenic propulsion. The new technology will bring down costs compared with cryogenic technology. Semi-cryogenic propulsion will enable India's GSLV rockets to launch 6-tonne satellites, instead of the currently launched 2.2-tonne models.