IIR document

Human requirements in future air-conditioned environments.

Author(s) : FANGER P. O.

Type of article: Article, IJR article


Although air-conditioning has played a positive role for economic development in warm climates, its image is globally mixed. Field studies demonstrate that there are substantial numbers of dissatisfied people in many buildings, among them those suffering from Sick Building Syndrome (SBS) symptoms, even though existing standards and guidelines are met. A paradigm from rather mediocre to excellent indoor environment is foreseen in the 21st century. Based on existing information and on new research results, five principles are suggested as elements behind a new philosophy of excellence: better indoor air quality increases productivity and decreases SBS symptoms; unnecessary indoor pollution sources should be avoided; the air should be served cool and dry to the occupants; "personalized air", i.e. a small amount of clean air, should be served gently, close to the breathing zone of each individual; individual control of the thermal environment should be provided. These principles of excellence are compatible with energy efficiency and sustainability.

Available documents

Format PDF

Pages: 148-153


  • Public price

    20 €

  • Member price*


* Best rate depending on membership category (see the detailed benefits of individual and corporate memberships).


  • Original title: Human requirements in future air-conditioned environments.
  • Record ID : 2001-2010
  • Languages: English
  • Source: International Journal of Refrigeration - Revue Internationale du Froid - vol. 24 - n. 2
  • Publication date: 2001/03


See other articles in this issue (7)
See the source