Recommended by the IIR / IIR document

The potential of water as a refrigerant - past, present and future approaches.

Number: 0233

Author(s) : KLEIN V., SUESS J., HESSE U.


The paper starts with an overview of the properties of water (R718) as a refrigerant and shows off the challenges focussing the compressor technology. In the second part of the paper various manufactures of water based refrigeration systems and a low capacity centrifugal compressor system, also based on using water as refrigerant, are introduced. The working principle of the machine with several energy efficient operational modes is explained. Finally, the use of water below its freezing point is discussed. By adding protective solutions such as ethanol, evaporation temperatures of -20 °C can be reached. Thus, the range of applications can be extended further without using common antifreeze solutions such as glycol.

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Pages: 7 p.


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  • Original title: The potential of water as a refrigerant - past, present and future approaches.
  • Record ID : 30029796
  • Languages: English
  • Subject: Technology
  • Source: 15th IIR-Gustav Lorentzen Conference on Natural Refrigerants (GL2022). Proceedings. Trondheim, Norway, June 13-15th 2022.
  • Publication date: 2022/06/13
  • DOI:
  • Document available for consultation in the library of the IIR headquarters only.


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