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5th generation district heating and cooling networks in Europe

A recent generation of district heating and cooling networks is developing in Europe, using low temperature renewable energy heat sources (such as shallow geothermal). 

An increasing number of 5th generation district heating and cooling networks (5GDHC) have been built in Europe in the past few years. According to review articles, these systems have been installed mainly in central Europe where the temperate climate conditions facili...

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