Reefer container throughput in main European ports.
In 2021, Europe’s leading ports were back to pre-pandemic levels of cargo and container throughput.
After pandemic-related declines during the past years, Europe’s leading ports recorded increases in cargo and container throughput in 2021. 
Port of Rotterdam
Rotterdam is the largest container port in Europe, with container terminals allowing for about 18,500 reefer connections.  In 2021, the number of containers increased by 6.6% to 15.3 million TEU (Twenty-foot Equivalent Unit) compared with 2020, resulting from higher spending on goods during the pandemic.  Reefer containers represent about 15% of container types.  LNG drove growth as higher gas prices in Europe led to higher LNG imports.
Port of Antwerp
The Port of Antwerp is Europe's second-largest container hub, offering 8,500 reefer plugs in container terminals. The total number of reefer containers handled in the port of Antwerp increased by 2.7% in 2021 compared to 2020. The 1 million TEU mark of operational reefer containers has been passed for the second year in a row. The growth was mainly driven by a 6% increase in export volumes. Indeed, about 60% of the containers handled in the Port of Antwerp are destined for export. The share of reefer container volumes (in TEUs) is 8.2% of the total container traffic in the port. 
In the first quarter of 2022, however, container traffic saw a fall of 11.6% in TEU compared to the same period last year. 
Port of Hamburg
Hamburg is the third largest container port in Europe. In 2021, the Port of Hamburg showed a clear recovery with a container throughput at 8.7 million TEU (+2.2% vs. 2020, -6.5% vs. 2019 at 9.3 million TEU). 
In 2022, the throughput in major European ports is affected by many factors including the ongoing war in Ukraine and labour shortage. 
 European Logistics: From one crisis to the next. https://www.logisticsmgmt.com/article/european_logistics_from_one_crisis_to_the_next
 Port of Rotterdam. Containers. https://www.portofrotterdam.com/en/logistics/cargo/containers
 Cold Chain segment hits 1 million TEU mark for second year in a row. https://newsroom.portofantwerp.com/cold-chain-segment-hits-1-million-teu-mark-for-second-year-in-a-row
 Port of Antwerp's quarterly figures confirm importance of merger and extra container capacity. https://newsroom.portofantwerp.com/port-of-antwerps-quarterly-figures-confirm-importance-of-merger-and-extra-container-capacity