IIR document

Groundwater system with heat pumps saves 70% of energy.



This paper describes an "aquifer thermal storage system" with heat pumps for combined cooling and heating for 58.000 m2 of buildings. The system provides 4.1 MW of cooling and 2.9 MW of heating. An aquifer is an underground layer of water bearing permeable rock or unconsolidated materials from which groundwater can be usefully extracted using water wells. During the summer, the system uses deep level groundwater from "cold" wells to provide cooling to the buildings. The heated groundwater is re-injected into "warm" wells and stored underground. During winter, the cycle is reversed and the water is pumped from the warm well and cooled down by the ammonia heat pumps. The chilled water is stored in the "cold" well to be used the next summer. The heat recovered by the heat pumps is used for the heating systems for the buildings. The system reduces the total energy consumption of heating and cooling for the buildings by 70%. It's also expected that the entire heating capacity will be provided by the heat pumps, totally eliminating emissions by gas- or oil fired boilers. In order to maximise energy savings, achieve high heating temperatures and prevent emissions of chemical refrigerants, the ammonia heat pumps are of an optimised design with screw compressors, cascade coolers and frequency controllers. The system has been developed in the Netherlands and has become standard for large buildings, industry and greenhouses with more than 600 references in the last 20 years. The project is the first installation of its type in Denmark. This innovative technology can be used on all sites where ground water is available and is now being introduced in other countries outside the Netherlands.

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Pages: 2010-1


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  • Original title: Groundwater system with heat pumps saves 70% of energy.
  • Record ID : 2010-0943
  • Languages: English
  • Source: 1st IIR International Conference on Sustainability and the Cold Chain
  • Publication date: 2010/03/29


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