IIR document

Evaluation of various refrigerant leak detector technologies for use with low-GWP A2L refrigerants (AHRTI #9014).

Number: 1026

Author(s) : ELBEL S., ZHENG J.


This paper describes the evaluation and characterization of different leak sensor technologies suitable to detect flammable refrigerants. The paper is based on AHRTI research project #9014 and includes the following sensing principles: Non-Dispersive-Infrared (NDIR), Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (MOS), Micro-Machined- Membrane (MMM), Speed-of-Sound (SS), and Thermal-Conductivity (TC). The sensors were characterized by measuring the response after imposing a concentration step-change. Based on this response and suitable transfer functions, it is possible to predict the sensor output when exposed to realistic time-varying refrigerant concentration, as experienced in typical leak scenarios. The modelled response agrees well with experiments in which the sensors experience time-varying concentration changes. Various industry standards have been reviewed, based on which a series of representative harshness tests were designed. These include storage and operation at demanding conditions, such as high and low temperatures, humidity exposure, and reduced ambient pressures. In addition, the test sensors were exposed to various substances to evaluate chemical resistance. A series of mechanical stress tests were also performed. Sensor response and accuracy were carefully evaluated with specially designed test facilities.

Available documents

Format PDF

Pages: 8


  • Public price

    20 €

  • Member price*


* Best rate depending on membership category (see the detailed benefits of individual and corporate memberships).


  • Original title: Evaluation of various refrigerant leak detector technologies for use with low-GWP A2L refrigerants (AHRTI #9014).
  • Record ID : 30028793
  • Languages: English
  • Subject: Technology
  • Source: 2nd IIR Conference on HFO Refrigerants and Low GWP Blends
  • Publication date: 2021/06
  • DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18462/iir.HFO.2021.1026


See other articles from the proceedings (52)
See the conference proceedings