Refrigeration systems for warm climates using only CO2 as a working fluid.

Author(s) : GTZ Proklima, GIROTTO S., MINETTO S.

Type of excerpt: Book chapter


This handbook, containing 31 articles, has been prepared by GTZ (German Technical Cooperation) on behalf of the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ). It highlights that natural refrigerants may be applied in various systems which previously used R22 and that they have proven to be energy-efficient, economically feasible and environmentally friendly replacements to HCFCs. Extract from the table of contents: policy/legislation of F-gases and alternatives; safety concerns as the main hurdle when implementing natural refrigerants and ways of overcoming them; assessment of natural refrigerants in different applications (application opportunities; application of ammonia heat pump systems for heating and cooling in non-residential buildings; overview and outlook for the application of CO2 in heat pumps; trends and perspectives in supermarket refrigeration; use of hydrocarbons as working fluids in heat pumps and refrigeration equipment; conversion of various HCFC-22 systems to hydrocarbon; experimental assessment of HC-290 as a substitute to HCFC-22 in a window air conditioner); market developments and case studies (the quality of natural refrigerants; phase out of R22 and then what capacity control of refrigeration systems with screw compressors and economizer; propane as an alternative to R22 for small refrigeration systems at high ambient temperatures; design criteria for CO2 evaporators; environmentally friendly refrigeration in the retail trade; refrigeration systems for warm climates using only CO2 as a working fluid; the first CO2 supermarket plant in New Zealand; natural refrigerants in dairy processing, supermarket refrigeration and air conditioning; water chillers with ammonia for building services; green ice cream cabinets; application of hydrocarbon refrigerants in existing large systems; developing a product range for climate- and ozone-friendly technologies).


  • Original title: Refrigeration systems for warm climates using only CO2 as a working fluid.
  • Record ID : 2008-2420
  • Languages: English
  • Source: Natural refrigerants: sustainable ozone- and climate-friendly alternatives to HCFCs.
  • Publication date: 2008/07


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