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  • CO2 applications: First commercial CO2 system in Latin America

    Last April Verdemar supermarket chain inaugurated its fifth store in the suburb of Jardim Canada, Nova Lima -Minas Gerais, Brazil. It is the first Latin American supermarket that uses carbon dioxide as a refrigerant. Its Skyrack Breeze, developed...

    • Publication date : 2011/02/07
  • CO2 applications: First hospital catering facility refrigeration system to run with CO2 in the UK

    A CO2 unit supplied by Green & Cool has been installed and commissioned by CCS Refrigeration, through Aggora on behalf of Medirest to provide for the on-site catering requirements of patients, restaurant and hospital staff at the Homerton...

    • Publication date : 2011/02/07
  • CO2 Supermarkets

    The journal Die Kälte und Klimatechnik has just produced an article on the opening of a supermarket using refrigeration installations for the first time running on direct expansion CO2 with both medium and low temperatures in Wettingen,...

    • Publication date : 2005/10/26
  • CO2 applications: Buses

    Berliner Verkehrsbetriebe (BVG) has installed CO2 air-conditioning systems in seven of its city buses operating on different routes in Berlin and covering 200 to 400 km per day. Germany's Federal Environment Agency has urged all public transport...

    • Publication date : 2011/02/07
  • CO2 supermarkets: Sainsbury’s

    Sainsbury's has doubled the size of its supermarket in Durham, UK, and has cut energy consumption by 10%. The store will be "carbon negative" thanks to a number or technologies including ground-breaking CO2 refrigeration technology and on-site...

    • Publication date : 2010/05/27
  • CO2 supermarkets: Tesco

    Designed as Tesco's first zero-carbon store, the new store at Ramsey, Cambridgeshire, UK, is completely HFC-free. The supermarket is hence using natural refrigerants CO2 and hydrocarbons throughout its refrigerators, freezers, heating, ventilation...

    • Publication date : 2010/05/27
  • CO2 supermarkets: CAREL

    CAREL and the French hypermarket chain Carrefour have joined forces to develop the first subcritical CO2 plant in a supermarket in Turkey. The Istanbul installation uses a cascade system that supplies the low-temperature units with R744. To...

    • Publication date : 2010/05/27
  • CO2 growth figures

    The Shecco Guide 2014: Natural Refrigerants Continued Growth & Innovation in Europe shows that to date (2013), there are 2885 CO2 transcritical (TC) systems installed in Europe (3100+ installations worldwide), a significant increase of 117%...

    • Publication date : 2014/10/09
  • CO2 supermarkets worldwide

    In its latest Accelerate Europe magazine, Shecco has disseminated figures illustrating the growth of CO2 in the commercial refrigeration sector.

    • Publication date : 2016/05/03
  • Integrated CO2-CHP system

    Brunel - a UK University - and 14 industrial partners in the commercial refrigeration sector have presented an innovative integrated energy system which has been designed to meet the needs of medium and large supermarkets and can be tailored to...

    • Publication date : 2011/02/11
  • Pioneering CO2 road vehicles

    Aldi Süd, Germany's biggest supermarket chain, is investing in new road transportation for frozen food and beverages with a view to promoting CO2. The next-generation vehicles will go into serial production after being exhibited at the Frankfurt...

    • Publication date : 2009/08/13
  • UK: Transcritical CO2 for Harrods

    The world-famous London luxury store Harrods has installed an innovative parallel CO2 compression refrigeration system in its food department in order to replace its ageing R22 and R404A systems.

    • Publication date : 2012/03/01
  • CO2 training courses in France

    Climate change concerns and increasing use of natural refrigerants with low global warming potential (GWP) are driving demand for natural refrigerant training courses.

    • Publication date : 2011/12/14
  • Innovative transcritical CO2 ice rink installation

    In Gimo, Sweden, a transcritical CO2 unit was installed to provide cooling for a new ice rink.

    • Publication date : 2015/05/12
  • CO2 for transport refrigeration systems

    A paper presented during the 10th IIR Gustav Lorentzen Conference held in Delft in 2012 summarizes developments on cryogenic solutions for refrigerated vehicles using liquid CO2 in an open cycle system.

    • Publication date : 2013/03/08
  • Liquefied Natural Gas: production process and cold energy recovery

    Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is natural gas that has been cooled to about -160 °C and turned into a liquid to facilitate transportation and storage. A typical LNG supply chain...

    • Last update : 2022/06/20
    • Langues : French, English
    • Themes : LNG and LPG
  • For IIR members only

    Ice cream manufacturing, environmental impact and market data

    From a physico-chemical point of view, ice cream is a complex, frozen multiphase mixture. The manufacturing process includes several stages of freezing which are described in this...

    • Last update : 2022/10/12
    • Langues : French, English
    • Themes : Ice creams
  • Thermophysical properties of hydrocarbon refrigerants

    Thermophysical properties of over 20 hydrocarbon refrigerants, including single-component and blends.

    • Last update : 2022/06/17
    • Langues : English
    • Themes : Hydrocarbons, Blends
  • Cryogenics in the pharmaceutical industry: drug design and bioavailability improvement

    Research activities in the pharmaceutical sector focus primarily on developing novel drug formulations which can elicit the desired response upon being administered to the patient...

    • Last update : 2022/11/21
    • Langues : French, English
    • Themes : Freeze-drying in biology and medicine, Cryobiology, cryomedicine: general information
  • For IIR members only

    Global cold storage capacity

    This table presents the cold storage capacity in about 50 countries, based on data from the Global Cold Chain Alliance (GCCA).

    • Last update : 2021/12/06
    • Langues : English
    • Themes : Refrigerated storage: economics and statistics
  • Additive manufacturing of regenerators for caloric cooling

    In many areas of engineering, additive manufacturing allows the production of complex and multifunctional products that could not be manufactured using traditional methods. In the...

    • Last update : 2022/09/16
    • Langues : French, English
    • Themes : Caloric cooling (magnetocaloric, electrocaloric, elastocaloric and barocaloric cooling)
  • For IIR members only

    Heat pump stock in Europe

    This table presents the stock of installed heat pumps, the CO2 emissions avoided and the number of jobs in the heat pump sector in Europe.

    • Last update : 2021/12/14
    • Langues : English
    • Themes : Heat pumps, energy recovery: economics and statistics
  • Global HFC emissions from the refrigeration sector

    This table shows HFC emissions from the refrigeration sector – including air conditioning – in million tonnes of CO2 equivalent for about 40 countries that are signatories...

    • Last update : 2022/01/20
    • Langues : English
    • Themes : General information on environment (climate change, ozone depletion…)
  • Environmental impact of the ice cream industry

    This summary document describes the environmental impact of ice cream manufacturing, which is mainly due to the energy consumption and refrigerants used.

    • Last update : 2022/11/17
    • Langues : French, English
    • Themes : General information on environment (climate change, ozone depletion…)
  • Hydrocarbon refrigerants

    Hydrocarbons such as R290 (propane), R600a (isobutane) or R1270 (propene/propylene) are low GWP non-toxic natural refrigerants with excellent thermodynamic properties. They offer an...

    • Last update : 2022/06/22
    • Langues : French, English
    • Themes : Hydrocarbons, Containment, refrigerant charge reduction
  • Additive manufacturing of heat exchangers

    In the refrigeration industry, additive manufacturing (colloquially referred to as “3D printing”) makes it possible to fabricate novel, complex and potentially more energy efficient...

    • Last update : 2022/09/07
    • Langues : French, English
    • Themes : Evaporators, condensers and other heat exchangers
  • Nanorefrigerants

    Nanorefrigerants are created by adding nanoparticles in suspension to a base refrigerant. They have a thermal conductivity that is 15% to 104% higher than that of the corresponding...

    • Last update : 2022/06/17
    • Langues : English, French
    • Themes : Nanofluids