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  • Cool IT: a new use for CO2

    Carbon dioxide offers a new optimum cooling medium for IT facilities. Electrically benign, and therefore non-hazardous to servers and cabling, it is seven times more efficient at cooling than water: CO2 permits reduced volume flows and smaller...

    • Publication date : 2006/05/05
  • Underground storage of liquid CO2

    Dispensing of CO2 by storing it underground usually implies placing it in aquifer rocks deep enough (-800 m) to achieve sufficient pressure to maintain the CO2 in a supercritical (fluid) phase. This approach has many shortcomings as in this form,...

    • Publication date : 2006/11/15
  • Supercooling the LHC

    CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the new research instrument of the world's elementary particle physics community. This discovery-making machine will explore the structure of matter and basic forces of nature on a scale never attained before....

    • Publication date : 2007/02/12
  • Cryopreservation techniques in reproductive medicine: improving cell survival after warming

    A recent literature review presents the technical progress in cryopreservation techniques. The vitrification concept is presented as crucial to ensure cell survival after cryopreservation. 

    • Publication date : 2020/11/27
  • Honey is an efficient natural cryoprotectant in fertility preservation

    While several review articles point to the need for new, effective and less toxic cryoprotectants, honey has proven to be an effective non-penetrating...

    • Publication date : 2022/03/31
    • Subjects: Technology
  • ICR2011 highlights: cooling particle detectors

    Cooling systems for particle detectors attracted interest at the IIR’s Congress in Prague in August 2011. These highly specific applications have very strict requirements compared with standard cooling systems: refrigerants should be resistant to...

    • Publication date : 2012/02/21
  • Nanorefrigerants

    Nanorefrigerants are created by adding nanoparticles in suspension to a base refrigerant. They have a thermal conductivity that is 15% to 104% higher than that of the corresponding...

    • Last update : 2022/06/17
    • Langues : English, French
    • Themes : Nanofluids
  • Environmental impact of the ice cream industry

    This summary document describes the environmental impact of ice cream manufacturing, which is mainly due to the energy consumption and refrigerants used.

    • Last update : 2022/11/17
    • Langues : French, English
    • Themes : General information on environment (climate change, ozone depletion…)
  • For IIR members only

    Ice cream manufacturing, environmental impact and market data

    From a physico-chemical point of view, ice cream is a complex, frozen multiphase mixture. The manufacturing process includes several stages of freezing which are described in this...

    • Last update : 2022/10/12
    • Langues : French, English
    • Themes : Ice creams