Author(s) : HAKALA P.


The article constitutes a synthesis of the problem. The general and international aspects are reviewed, before indicating the application to Finland and Sweden. Finally, refrigerants are classified into pure substances, azeotropic mixtures, quasi-azeotropic and non azeotropic mixtures with technical explanations. The substitutes are presented in a summarized table and then analyzed one by one, at least for the most important ones, separating transition fluids and those considered as permanent. The oil problem is dealt with as well as procedures to be used for replacing one refrigerant with another in an existing plant (conversion). A summary table shows ODP and GWI for numerous refrigerants.


  • Original title: CFC-replacements.
  • Record ID : 1995-1531
  • Languages: English
  • Subject: Regulation, General information
  • Publication date: 1994/05/20
  • Source: Source: Semin. nord. refrig. Transp., Helsinki
    18 p.; 3 fig.; 1 tabl.
  • Document available for consultation in the library of the IIR headquarters only.