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  • R410A/R22 alternatives for AC in high-ambient temperature environments: R32 and R290

    The final US Oak Ridge National Laboratory report – presented during MOP27 in Dubaï – compares the performance of low-GWP alternative refrigerants to HFC R410A in mini-split air conditioners (ACs) under high-ambient-temperature conditions.

    • Publication date : 2016/05/11
  • China: a direct leap from HCFCs to natural refrigerants?

    Released for public consultation in June 2015 by China’s Ministry of Environmental Protection, the First Catalogue of Recommended Substitutes for HCFCs lists 12 substitutes for HCFC refrigerants, foaming agents and detergents, ten of which are...

    • Publication date : 2015/11/11
  • Performance of R32 and R290 as alternatives to R22 and R410A in domestic air conditioning

    According to the authors, regardless of the capacity difference, R290 could be considered as the most appropriate substitute in air conditioners with small finned tube heat exchangers

    • Publication date : 2014/09/25
  • US: EPA to strengthen HFC laws

    The proposed changes to Section 608 of the Clean Air Act, published on November 9, 2015, aim at reducing emissions of ozone depleting substances (ODS) and substitute HFC refrigerants during the maintenance, service, repair and disposal of appliances.

    • Publication date : 2016/05/02
    • Subjects: Regulation, HFCs alternatives
  • US: EPA approves 3 hydrocarbon refrigerants for household and commercial uses

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has added 3 hydrocarbons as acceptable alternatives in household refrigerators and freezers, combination refrigerator-freezers, and commercial stand-alone units through EPA’s Significant New...

    • Publication date : 2012/02/13
    • Subjects: Regulation
  • IIR Rankine Conference 2020: Which alternative working fluids for ORC systems?

    HFOs (hydrofluoroolefins), HCFOs (hydrochlorofluoroolefins) and hydrocarbons were the main alternatives to HFC245fa presented during the IIR Rankine Conference 2020.

    • Publication date : 2020/09/04
    • Subjects: HFCs alternatives
  • Ozone layer issues: Montreal Protocol

    A recent policy article recommends "further adjustments to strengthen the Montreal Protocol and provide further insurance against the threat of abrupt climate change". According to the authors, "the Montreal Protocol's successful work to protect...

    • Publication date : 2007/08/05
  • IJR highlights: review of low-GWP alternative refrigerants

    In a recent review article based on over 60 published studies and published in the International Journal of Refrigeration, Chinese researchers have compared nearly 40 alternative low-GWP refrigerants in terms of...

    • Publication date : 2021/06/28
    • Subjects: HFCs alternatives
  • US EPA proposes acceptance of hydrocarbons and R32 in 6 applications

    The US EPA has proposed a range of acceptable uses for hydrocarbon refrigerants – R600a, R290, R170 and R441A along with R32 under the EPA’s Significant New Alternatives Policy (SNAP)

    • Publication date : 2014/09/08
    • Subjects: Regulation
  • The US Environmental Protection Agency

    - The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) made available to the public for comment information concerning the current and projected use of HCFC-22 and HCFC-142b. EPA foresees using this information in the future when developing regulations....

    • Publication date : 2006/01/28
  • United States

    The US EPA has published a long-awaited proposed rule allowing the use of certain hydrocarbons in new household refrigerator and freezer equipment. Hydrocarbon refrigerants have now been used for over 10 years in countries such as Germany, the UK,...

    • Publication date : 2011/02/04
  • Illegal trade of ODS

    During the ECA network meeting in Turkmenistan (see above), Dr Ezra Clark from the Environmental Investigation Agency (EIA), UK, presented some data on the illegal trade of ozone-depleting substances (ODS). Originally a problem in non-Article 5...

    • Publication date : 2007/05/04
  • Regulations and use of HFCs in the USA

    Under section 608 of the Clean Air Act, it has been illegal since November 15, 1995, to knowingly vent substitutes for CFC and HCFC refrigerants during the maintenance, service, repair and disposal of air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment....

    • Publication date : 2004/09/14
  • Experimental Study on Automotive Cooling and Heating Air Conditioning System Using CO2 as a Refrigerant

    This paper was presented at the IIR Gustav Lorentzen Conference in Glasgow (Sep. 2004). It presents an experimental study on automotive cooling and heating air conditioning systems using CO2 as refrigerant. Recently, as one of the countermeasures...

    • Publication date : 2004/11/24
  • IPCC/TEAP Special Report

    The Summary for Policy Makers of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)/ Technology and Economic Assessment Panel (TEAP) Special Report "Safeguarding the ozone layer and the global climate system: issues related to hydrofluorocarbons...

    • Publication date : 2005/06/14