Natural refrigerants for heat pumps and air-conditioning systems.

Author(s) : THONON B.


Today, heat pumps and air-conditioning systems evolve rapidly in order to adapt the refrigerants to the regulations on ozone depletion substances (ODS) and to face existing or future regulations concerning global warming and climate change. Since the Montreal Protocol (1987), CFC type refrigerants are banned and the use of HCFC is progressively decreased due to their effect on the ozone layer. Presently, HFC is the main family of refrigerant used by manufacturers of systems. But, due to their global warming potential, these fluids are concerned by the Kyoto Protocol and their production and use will be regulated or banned in some countries. The recent adoption by the European Parliament of the F-Gas regulation leads manufacturers to search alternative solutions, which are based on the use of 'natural refrigerants'. 'Natural refrigerants' is a generic name for a class of fluids, which have negligible or zero global warming potential. Amongst them are air, water, hydrocarbons, ammonia and carbon dioxide. Water and air are potential refrigerant, but technological aspects and system efficiency limit their use. Hydrocarbons, ammonia and carbon dioxide are new 'old' refrigerants, as in the past, these fluids were used in refrigeration systems prior to development of artificial refrigerants. For each of these three fluids (hydrocarbons, ammonia and carbon dioxide) the state of the art on technological development are presented for heat pumps and air-conditioning systems.


  • Original title: Natural refrigerants for heat pumps and air-conditioning systems.
  • Record ID : 2008-1197
  • Languages: English
  • Subject: Regulation, Environment
  • Publication date: 2006/11/20
  • Source: Source: Climamed 2006, Lyon
    P0-2; 15-24; fig.; tabl.; 3 ref.