IIR document

Application of state-of-the-art heat pump and refrigeration systems with natural refrigerants in Norway.

Number: 0100

Author(s) : STENE J.


In recent years in Norway there has been a strong trend towards the installation of heat pump, liquid chiller and refrigeration systems with natural refrigerants – ammonia (R717), hydrocarbons (R290, R600a) and CO2 (R744). Despite the safety issues wrt. toxicity and flammability, a large number of propane and ammonia heat pump and liquid chillers have been installed in e.g. office buildings, universities, schools, nursery homes and hospitals. CO₂ refrigeration systems is now the sole technology for medium- and low-temperature cold storage in supermarkets, and CO₂ is also applied in industrial and commercial refrigeration systems, hot water heat pumps and heat pumps for combined space heating and hot water heating. Selected installations in Norway are presented – a ground-source system in a hospital comprising a 4.5 MW ammonia heat pump and liquid chiller plant and a 500 kW CO₂ heat pump, an air-source system in an office building with a 650 kW propane heat pump and liquid chiller plant, a CO₂ refrigeration system in a hospital, and an 800 kW ammonia liquid chiller plant with high-temperature heat recovery at a university data centre. The different heat pumping plants represent highly sustainable installations with regard to high SCOP (low carbon footprint), 100 % environmentally benign refrigerants, compact design (min. material use) as well as optimized design and high-quality components/units (long lifetime). The paper demonstrates that natural refrigerants can be applied with great success in installations that previously have been dominated by synthetic refrigerants.

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Pages: 8 p.


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  • Original title: Application of state-of-the-art heat pump and refrigeration systems with natural refrigerants in Norway.
  • Record ID : 30029707
  • Languages: English
  • Subject: Technology
  • Source: 15th IIR-Gustav Lorentzen Conference on Natural Refrigerants (GL2022). Proceedings. Trondheim, Norway, June 13-15th 2022.
  • Publication date: 2022/06/13
  • DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18462/iir.gl2022.0100
  • Document available for consultation in the library of the IIR headquarters only.


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