IIR document

Evaluation of a low-gwp refrigerant for unitary air-conditioning and heat pump applications.

Number: 0037

Author(s) : KIM S., LOW R., SEETON C.


Legislative phase-down of fluorinated fluids is driving transitions to lower Global Warming Potential (GWP) refrigerants. The unitary air-conditioning and heat pump application sector is one of the largest single consumers of refrigerants today mostly with R-410A having a GWP of 2088. While R-32 (GWP 675) and R-454B (GWP 466) have been widely considered as alternatives to R-410A, the flammability and charge size of systems may present an additional barrier to use these fluids. The industry will also have to prepare for future hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) phasedown schedules with as much as 70% reduction required compared to the established baseline by 2029 in the US. Use of R-744 (CO2) has been considered in the past but the energy efficiency and cost of prototype systems has rendered it unattractive. A non-flammable refrigerant blend of 69% R-744, 10% R-1132a and 21% R-32, with a GWP of 142, has demonstrated significant energy efficiency advantage over pure R-744. The feasibility and test results of using this refrigerant in a prototype unit while maintaining the same footprint as a commercially available HFC based heat pump unit will be presented. Performance, material compatibility and oil miscibility results of LFR3 will also be discussed.

Available documents

Format PDF

Pages: 7


  • Public price

    20 €

  • Member price*


* Best rate depending on membership category (see the detailed benefits of individual and corporate memberships).


  • Original title: Evaluation of a low-gwp refrigerant for unitary air-conditioning and heat pump applications.
  • Record ID : 30030996
  • Languages: English
  • Subject: HFCs alternatives
  • Source: 10th IIR Conference on Ammonia and CO2 Refrigeration Technologies.
  • Publication date: 2023/04/27
  • DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18462/iir.nh3-co2.2023.0037


See other articles from the proceedings (38)
See the conference proceedings