IIR document

The advantages of natural working fluids.

Number: pap. n. 1030

Author(s) : HAFNER A.


The manufacturers of refrigeration equipment are facing challenges related to the legislative requirements forcing them to implement less conventional refrigerants with lower Global Warming Potential (GWP) in their new products. Natural working fluids like Ammonia, Carbon Dioxide and Propane have demonstrated to be energy efficient and environmentally benign alternatives. Ammonia refrigeration systems have been successfully in the market for more than 140 years. Especially at high ambient temperature conditions, these units can outperform conventional HFC systems. The cost, availability and detection of the fluid are no issue on a global base. Hydrocarbon based AC split units, applying propane, are in focus and large-scale production lines are under preparation. The fluid- and thermosphysical properties of CO2 are quite different from most other working fluids. Therefore, the refrigeration system design has to be carefully adapted to the properties of CO2, thereby maximising the energy efficiency and minimising the total cost of ownership. The article describes the challenges related to conventional refrigerants and examples of the latest system developments applying natural working fluids in industrial-, commercial and marine refrigeration will be described in the work.

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Pages: 9


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  • Original title: The advantages of natural working fluids.
  • Record ID : 30026689
  • Languages: English
  • Subject: General information, HFCs alternatives
  • Source: Proceedings of the 25th IIR International Congress of Refrigeration: Montréal , Canada, August 24-30, 2019.
  • Publication date: 2019/08/24
  • DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.18462/iir.icr.2019.1030
  • Notes:



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