Safe use of HCFC alternatives in refrigeration and air-conditioning.


Type of monograph: Guide/Handbook, Booklet


As the phase-out of hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) progresses under the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, it is expected that there will be a considerably higher uptake around the world, and in particular in developing countries of ‘alternative refrigerants’, such as hydrocarbons, ammonia, carbon dioxide, unsaturated hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) –or HFO- and HFO mixtures. Many of these alternative refrigerants have particular characteristics in terms of toxicity, flammability and high pressure which are different from those used previously such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs). When refrigeration and airconditioning equipment is installed, serviced, repaired and dismantled, safety issues need to be carefully evaluated and considered particularly when servicing technicians have to deal with refrigerants with properties that they were previously not familiar with. It is therefore important that the refrigeration and air-conditioning industry adapts to both the technical and safety issues concerning these refrigerants.
This publication provides an overview of the alternatives to HCFCs, their general characteristics and the situations in which they may considered appropriate to be used in the context of the safety implications posed by these refrigerants. The focus of the publication is on new systems, since the use of flammable, higher toxicity and/or higher pressure alternatives is strongly discouraged from being used in existing HCFC systems. Consideration is also given to the relevant requirements and recommendations of the Executive Committee of the Multilateral Fund for the Implementation of the Montreal Protocol.

Available documents

Format PDF

Pages: 76




  • Original title: Safe use of HCFC alternatives in refrigeration and air-conditioning.
  • Record ID : 30025169
  • Languages: English
  • Subject: Regulation, HFCs alternatives
  • Publication: Unep (united nations environment programme), dtie (division of technology, industry and economics), ozonaction programme - France/France
  • Publication date: 2015