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  • Residential CO2 heat pump system for combined space heating and hot water heating

    This paper was presented at the IIR Gustav Lorentzen Conference in Glasgow (Sep. 2004). A theoretical and experimental study was carried out for a residential brine-to-water CO2 heat pump system for combined space heating and hot water heating - a...

    • Publication date : 2004/11/24
  • European heat pump market repartition by energy source

    Air continues to be the main energy source (more than 85%) used in the European heat pump markets. The aerothermal heat pump segment is dominated by air/air (with heating functionality) and air/water units used for heating and hot water production.

    • Publication date : 2016/02/03
    • Subjects: Figures, economy
  • Solar cooling potential in Spain

    During the IIR-co-sponsored EuroSun 2012 conference, Carrera et al. presented the results of a study about the potential of solar thermal energy to supply heating, domestic hot water and cooling in the residential and tertiary Spanish buildings...

    • Publication date : 2013/03/25
  • Fusion of a boiler and a heat pump into one new system, thanks to thermal compression

    Boostheat company has developed a new technology that is claimed to lead to a new generation of very efficient and renewable heating, hot water and cooling systems.

    • Publication date : 2015/08/04
  • Briefs: CO2 heat pumps in a retirement home

    Villa Laura, a retirement home near Florence, Italy, is equipped with 4 water/water ground-water heat pumps operating with a transcritical CO2 cycle providing heating, air conditioning and hot water. This technology is already used to produce hot...

    • Publication date : 2007/11/20
  • Solar absorption air conditioning

    When do you need air conditioning? When it is hot and sunny. This is why Broad Air Conditioning, China, one of the world's largest manufacturers of direct-fired absorption chillers, has been focusing on solar absorption air-conditioning systems...

    • Publication date : 2006/11/15
  • Ice Gurus

    Ice tailoring appears to be the new Olympic challenge. Ice must be tailored to each athlete's needs, e.g. long-track speed skaters prefer a surface as low as -7 to -8°C, whilst figure skaters need to dig their skates into the ice in order to pull...

    • Publication date : 2006/05/05
  • How to reuse the condensate water from air conditioners?

    Review of the different uses of the condensate water rejected by air conditioners.

    • Publication date : 2020/09/04
    • Subjects: Developing country
  • R&D

    The US Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has developed a new air-conditioning system combining membranes, evaporative coolers and desiccants into a single device with the objective to suit to all climates,...

    • Publication date : 2011/02/07
  • Heat pump sales grew in Europe in 2020

    According to the latest market report by European Heat Pump Association (EHPA), heat pump sales grew by +7.4% in 2020, offering benefits both in terms of greenhouse gas emission...

    • Publication date : 2021/11/29
    • Subjects: Figures, economy
  • Underground river to cool the London tube

    The "Cooling the Tube" competition in 2003, promising GBP 100 000 to those finding a workable solution to cool the Tube, received 3400 entries. Modern systems with large tunnels and surface lines can be cooled using air-cooling systems. However,...

    • Publication date : 2005/02/11
  • Centrifugal chillers: new developments

    New developments regarding centrifugal chillers include the world’s first production-scale chiller using water as a refrigerant and the world’s first photovoltaic direct driven inverter centrifugal chiller.

    • Publication date : 2015/03/25
  • Heat pumps

    - Analysis of sales of heat pumps in Austria over 2003 and 2004 has shown good growth in the heating and controlled dwelling ventilation segments. The figures were compiled with the National Ministry for Transportation, Innovation and Technology,...

    • Publication date : 2005/07/19
  • Out of the ordinary: Vanilla and ice skating on the Eiffel Tower

    Special treat for the festive season: skating on a 200 m² vanilla-perfumed rink 57 m above ground level on the Eiffel Tower, with hot wine and cakes served as refreshments. Installing the rink was a technical feat: 10 tonnes of refrigerating...

    • Publication date : 2005/02/11
  • Briefs: Giant chiller

    A 5-MW 2-stage water-lithium bromide absorption chiller was recently inaugurated at Ulm Technical University in Germany. The Chinese-manufactured chiller is driven by hot wastewater (180°C) from a bio-energy-fired cogeneration plant. This...

    • Publication date : 2004/04/28
  • Hydrocarbon refrigerants

    Hydrocarbons such as R290 (propane), R600a (isobutane) or R1270 (propene/propylene) are low GWP non-toxic natural refrigerants with excellent thermodynamic properties. They offer an...

    • Last update : 2022/06/22
    • Langues : French, English
    • Themes : Hydrocarbons, Containment, refrigerant charge reduction
  • For IIR members only

    Ice cream manufacturing, environmental impact and market data

    From a physico-chemical point of view, ice cream is a complex, frozen multiphase mixture. The manufacturing process includes several stages of freezing which are described in this...

    • Last update : 2022/10/12
    • Langues : French, English
    • Themes : Ice creams
  • Cryogenics in the pharmaceutical industry: drug design and bioavailability improvement

    Research activities in the pharmaceutical sector focus primarily on developing novel drug formulations which can elicit the desired response upon being administered to the patient...

    • Last update : 2022/11/21
    • Langues : French, English
    • Themes : Freeze-drying in biology and medicine, Cryobiology, cryomedicine: general information
  • Additive manufacturing of heat exchangers

    In the refrigeration industry, additive manufacturing (colloquially referred to as “3D printing”) makes it possible to fabricate novel, complex and potentially more energy efficient...

    • Last update : 2022/09/07
    • Langues : French, English
    • Themes : Evaporators, condensers and other heat exchangers
  • Liquefied Natural Gas: production process and cold energy recovery

    Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is natural gas that has been cooled to about -160 °C and turned into a liquid to facilitate transportation and storage. A typical LNG supply chain...

    • Last update : 2022/06/20
    • Langues : French, English
    • Themes : LNG and LPG
  • Nanorefrigerants

    Nanorefrigerants are created by adding nanoparticles in suspension to a base refrigerant. They have a thermal conductivity that is 15% to 104% higher than that of the corresponding...

    • Last update : 2022/06/17
    • Langues : English, French
    • Themes : Nanofluids