An assessment of low GWP refrigerants in different applications.

Considerazioni sui refrigeranti con basso GWP nelle diverse applicazioni.

Author(s) : BELLA B., KAEMMER N.

Type of article: Article, Review


New HFO, blends with low GWP and natural refrigerants like CO2 and R290 have been proposed as candidate/alternative to replace the existing HFCs. The HFO-1234yf and 1234ze pure refrigerants are similar to R134a. New HFO blends have been developed and proposed to substitute the other HFC’s for the different applications. These HFOs and some HFO blends with low GWP are flammable (A2L) and will require the modification of existing safety standard for design, application and service to facilitate their practical implementation. The A/C and refrigeration systems are responsible of approximately 10% of the total equivalent CO2 released in the atmosphere worldwide. Therefore any decision aiming at a reduction of CO2 emissions from this field must be based on accurate data and a careful analysis of all implications. The work presented here explains the options to regulate the use of refrigerants with most positive impact on global warming. These are production cap limitations, leakage rate limitations and GWP application limitations. The first approach limits the GWP of the refrigerant, the second limits the leakage rate during the system life. These two approaches do not take in consideration the system and efficiency. The third approach considers the equivalent CO2 produced during the life of the system. This includes refrigerant and system characteristics such as efficiency. The TEWI or LCCP numbers differ from one application to another; therefore such a scheme requires further rules to make it a practical approach. With the first two approaches the total equivalent CO2 emissions is a direct consequence for any regulatory limitation, the third approach is a top-down method defining the overall emission target. Once the total CO2 emission is determined, specific targets have to be fixed for representative systems taking into consideration the specific constraints of the individual applications. Therefore more experimental data from system testing with new refrigerant options are required to assess this capability.


  • Original title: Considerazioni sui refrigeranti con basso GWP nelle diverse applicazioni.
  • Record ID : 30002569
  • Languages: Italian
  • Subject: HFCs alternatives
  • Source: Industria & Formazione - vol. 35 - n. 354
  • Publication date: 2011


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