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  • PCMs and ice slurries: Broccoli preservation with ice slurry

    Preserving the quality of extremely perishable vegetables such as broccoli is dependent on rapid and thorough cooling immediately after harvest and maintaining at a low temperature during storage or processing. The lower the storage temperature...

    • Publication date : 2007/02/12
  • Instant milk-cooling system utilising propane and either ice slurry or traditional ice bank

    This paper was presented at the IIR Gustav Lorentzen Conference in Glasgow (Sep. 2004). Two novel milk-cooling concepts have been designed and installed at two Danish farms. These systems have a respective capacity of 14 400 and 16 000 litres of...

    • Publication date : 2004/11/24
  • Ice Gurus

    Ice tailoring appears to be the new Olympic challenge. Ice must be tailored to each athlete's needs, e.g. long-track speed skaters prefer a surface as low as -7 to -8°C, whilst figure skaters need to dig their skates into the ice in order to pull...

    • Publication date : 2006/05/05
  • Ice storage

    Ice storage is not only beneficial in economic terms, it is also energy-saving, noise-free and helps extend the life of the systems. It consists in keeping a certain amount of ice, as a way of storing "cold", in order to use it later. It was...

    • Publication date : 2007/08/05
  • Ice storage

    The Paris Palais des Congrès, a vast building comprising a Congress centre, a hotel and a shopping mall is equipped with an ice storage system allowing it to optimize its power-bill management in winter, but also to shave summer peaks and to...

    • Publication date : 2007/11/20
  • Ice cube?

    A giant ice cube has appeared in Minneapolis and isn't going to melt. Described by its Swiss architect, Jacques Herzog, as "A big ice cube for Ice City," the cube is in fact an extension to the Walker Art Center. The icy appearance of the recently...

    • Publication date : 2005/07/19
  • California Ice Exploration

    Eleven Southern California municipal electric utilities are exploring the use of ice storage to help reduce peak electricity demand during hot summer months, given that 70% of this demand is due to air conditioners. The electric utilities are...

    • Publication date : 2006/01/28
  • Coal mine ice-cooling

    IDE Technologie’s vacuum ice maker (VIM) technology produces portable ice slurry, which is easily transferrable and pumpable. Using ice instead of water cuts water consumption by 75% and reduces the environmental impact of the mine.

    • Publication date : 2012/10/17
  • Briefs: Ice cream scoops

    A new edible antifreeze developed by a US researcher could keep ice cream smooth and tasty by preventing the formation of gritty crystals when the ice cream is subjected to sudden temperature fluctuation. The antifreeze contains proteins similar...

    • Publication date : 2008/05/13
  • Polish ice-cream market figures

    According to a study, performed by Loupe Etudes, the Polish ice-cream market is not yet saturated

    • Publication date : 2012/02/15
    • Subjects: Figures, economy
  • Out of ordinary: ice sculpture

    Ice Sculptures Unlimited, based in Richmond, Virginia (USA) is specialized in custom-made ice sculptures including company logos, ice bars and food displays.

    • Publication date : 2006/01/28
  • Unique flow ice application in Tasmania

    A Flow Ice generator, built by Pam Refrigeration in Cape Town, is now in use for the rapid cooling of freshly caught salmon in road tankers for a Tasmanian salmon farm.

    • Publication date : 2014/01/02
  • Plans to save Grimsby Ice Factory

    An irreplaceable piece of industrial refrigeration history is endangered

    • Publication date : 2011/11/17
  • CO2 technology for ice-skating rinks

    Nowadays, the use of large amounts of ammonia in public places is restricted by regulations in several countries, for safety reasons. Hence, new skating rinks with direct ammonia systems can no longer be built, although it is thought that they...

    • Publication date : 2004/11/19
  • Out of the Ordinary: Ice Magic

    Ice Magic in Paris is an ice sculpture exhibition. This year's theme was "Around the World". An insulated pavilion at a temperature of -6°C on the Champs-Elysées housed the temporary exhibition featuring the Coliseum, the Parthenon, the...

    • Publication date : 2011/02/11
  • Ice cream manufacturing, environmental impact and market data

    From a physico-chemical point of view, ice cream is a complex, frozen multiphase mixture. The manufacturing process includes several stages of freezing which are described in this...

    • Last update : 2023/06/30
    • Langues : French, English
    • Themes : Ice creams
  • Environmental impact of the ice cream industry

    This summary document describes the environmental impact of ice cream manufacturing, which is mainly due to the energy consumption and refrigerants used.

    • Last update : 2022/11/17
    • Langues : French, English
    • Themes : General information on environment (climate change, ozone depletion…)
  • Cryogenics in the pharmaceutical industry: drug design and bioavailability improvement

    Research activities in the pharmaceutical sector focus primarily on developing novel drug formulations which can elicit the desired response upon being administered to the patient...

    • Last update : 2023/03/10
    • Langues : French, English
    • Themes : Freeze-drying in biology and medicine, Cryobiology, cryomedicine: general information
  • Cryogenic nitrogen in the food and beverage industry

    The adoption of cryogenic processes in the food and beverage industry is predominantly driven by liquid nitrogen (LIN), and it is the preferred candidate for food chilling and...

    • Last update : 2023/06/09
    • Langues : French, English
    • Themes : Freezing of foodstuffs
  • Additive manufacturing of heat exchangers

    In the refrigeration industry, additive manufacturing (colloquially referred to as “3D printing”) makes it possible to fabricate novel, complex and potentially more energy efficient...

    • Last update : 2022/09/07
    • Langues : French, English
    • Themes : Evaporators, condensers and other heat exchangers
  • Thermophysical properties of HFO refrigerants

    Thermophysical properties of over 50 HFO refrigerants, including single-component and blends.

    • Last update : 2022/06/17
    • Langues : English
    • Themes : HFO et HCFO, Blends
  • Thermophysical properties of hydrocarbon refrigerants

    Thermophysical properties of over 20 hydrocarbon refrigerants, including single-component and blends.

    • Last update : 2022/06/17
    • Langues : English
    • Themes : Hydrocarbons, Blends
  • Thermophysical properties of HFC refrigerants

    Thermophysical properties of over 100 HFC refrigerants, including single-component and blends.

    • Last update : 2022/06/17
    • Langues : English
    • Themes : HFCs, HFO et HCFO, Blends
  • Additive manufacturing of regenerators for caloric cooling

    In many areas of engineering, additive manufacturing allows the production of complex and multifunctional products that could not be manufactured using traditional methods. In the...

    • Last update : 2022/09/16
    • Langues : French, English
    • Themes : Caloric cooling (magnetocaloric, electrocaloric, elastocaloric and barocaloric cooling)
  • Liquefied Natural Gas: production process and cold energy recovery

    Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is natural gas that has been cooled to about -160 °C and turned into a liquid to facilitate transportation and storage. A typical LNG supply chain...

    • Last update : 2023/06/23
    • Langues : French, English
    • Themes : LNG and LPG
  • Nanorefrigerants

    Nanorefrigerants are created by adding nanoparticles in suspension to a base refrigerant. They have a thermal conductivity that is 15% to 104% higher than that of the corresponding...

    • Last update : 2022/06/17
    • Langues : English, French
    • Themes : Nanofluids
  • For IIR members only

    Global cold storage capacity

    This table presents the cold storage capacity in about 50 countries, based on data from the Global Cold Chain Alliance (GCCA).

    • Last update : 2021/12/06
    • Langues : English
    • Themes : Refrigerated storage: economics and statistics
  • For IIR members only

    Heat pump stock in Europe

    This table presents the stock of installed heat pumps, the CO2 emissions avoided and the number of jobs in the heat pump sector in Europe.

    • Last update : 2021/12/14
    • Langues : English
    • Themes : Heat pumps, energy recovery: economics and statistics
  • Cold storage conditions for fruits and vegetables

    Practical recommendations for the cold storage of over 200 cultivars of fruits, vegetables and herbs (storage temperatures, relative humidity, storage time, controlled atmosphere...

    • Last update : 2023/01/16
    • Langues : French, English
    • Themes : Fruit, Vegetables
  • Hydrocarbon refrigerants

    Hydrocarbons such as R290 (propane), R600a (isobutane) or R1270 (propene/propylene) are low GWP non-toxic natural refrigerants with excellent thermodynamic properties. They offer an...

    • Last update : 2022/06/22
    • Langues : French, English
    • Themes : Hydrocarbons, Containment, refrigerant charge reduction