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  • LNG Worldwide

    - Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) is found in many parts of the world (e.g. Algeria, Australia, Brunei, Indonesia, Libya, Malaysia, Nigeria, Oman, Qatar and Trinidad and Tobago), with the largest reserves in the Middle East. Worldwide, there are...

    • Publication date : 2004/04/28
  • LNG vessels

    The world's largest LNG vessel, Mozah, recently made its maiden visit to the South Hook LNG Terminal in Milford Haven, UK, heralding a new era in the history of liquefied natural gas (LNG) transportation. The Q-Max ship measures 345 metres long,...

    • Publication date : 2010/03/07
  • LNG Overview

    LNG tankers China will produce 5 more LNG tankers. The first Chinese-built LNG tanker was built last year and the second one was launched in Shanghai in June 2006: it cost 160 million USD and can carry 147 000 m3 of LNG at -163°C during...

    • Publication date : 2006/11/15
  • LNG-fuelled ships

    New ships will increasingly be fuelled by LNG, and Zeus Development Corporation is monitoring LNG-fuelled non-carrier vessels: there are currently 50 and the number is growing fast.

    • Publication date : 2012/08/03
  • LNG news: Russia

    Russia is to build its first LNG plant at Prigorodnoye, Aniva Bay. The location is ice-free for most of the year and the contract has gone to a consortium of Russian companies and Toyo Engineering of Japan, and the plant will produce 9.6 million...

    • Publication date : 2007/05/04
  • LNG news: Singapore

    Singapore is to import liquefied natural gas (LNG) in order to meet rising demand for energy. It's first LNG terminal will produce 3 million tons of LNG/year. Singapore aims to diversify its energy sources and to implement a more stable pricing...

    • Publication date : 2007/05/04
  • Figures: China: LNG

    According to National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC), China needs 100 to 120 billion m3 of natural gas annually until 2010 but will only produce 90 to 100 billion m3. NDRC projections predict annual demand to swell to 200 to 240 billion...

    • Publication date : 2008/02/12
  • Markets: LNG market

    According to Andy Flower, an energy consultant, the global LNG market would maintain an average 12% annual growth until 2012 but should see a shortfall of about 120 million tonnes by 2020. Global LNG trade fell last year for the first time since...

    • Publication date : 2009/05/18
  • LNG news: Qatar

    Qatar is poised to become the world's largest exporter of LNG. It expects to be exporting 77 million tons/year by 2012. The country intends to invest 130 billion USD in the oil and gas infrastructure over the next 7 years.

    • Publication date : 2007/05/04
  • The LNG global production

    Global LNG production capacity to increase by 130 billion m3 by 2018 as 12 new liquefaction plants open IEA report says.

    • Publication date : 2014/01/30
  • Australian LNG exports to triple

    National exports of liquefied natural gas (LNG) could more than triple to 63 million tonnes per annum by 2016-2017.

    • Publication date : 2012/11/15
  • LNG ship shortage hurts new players

     A lack of available liquefied natural gas (LNG) tankers helped push charter rates up this winter and continues to hamper trade for smaller players without access to tonnage, according to shipper Golar LNG (GLNG). Large increases in Asian demand...

    • Publication date : 2011/08/04
  • Plans for a floating LNG factory

    This new type of floating factory could give access to off-shore reserves, without the use of long and expensive ocean-bed pipelines

    • Publication date : 2012/04/23
  • LNG to power locomotives in North America

    As LNG prices drop, it is foreseeable that more railroad operators around the world will start looking at LNG as an alternative fuel for their locomotives.

    • Publication date : 2013/06/04
  • LNG to replace diesel fuel for locomotives?

    BNSF will be testing a small number of locomotives using LNG as an alternative fuel to diesel later this year.

    • Publication date : 2013/07/03
  • Additive manufacturing of heat exchangers

    In the refrigeration industry, additive manufacturing (colloquially referred to as “3D printing”) makes it possible to fabricate novel, complex and potentially more energy efficient...

    • Last update : 2022/09/07
    • Langues : French, English
    • Themes : Evaporators, condensers and other heat exchangers
  • Liquefied Natural Gas: production process and cold energy recovery

    Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is natural gas that has been cooled to about -160 °C and turned into a liquid to facilitate transportation and storage. A typical LNG supply chain...

    • Last update : 2022/06/20
    • Langues : French, English
    • Themes : LNG and LPG
  • Additive manufacturing of regenerators for caloric cooling

    In many areas of engineering, additive manufacturing allows the production of complex and multifunctional products that could not be manufactured using traditional methods. In the...

    • Last update : 2022/09/16
    • Langues : French, English
    • Themes : Caloric cooling (magnetocaloric, electrocaloric, elastocaloric and barocaloric cooling)
  • For IIR members only

    Ice cream manufacturing, environmental impact and market data

    From a physico-chemical point of view, ice cream is a complex, frozen multiphase mixture. The manufacturing process includes several stages of freezing which are described in this...

    • Last update : 2022/10/12
    • Langues : French, English
    • Themes : Ice creams
  • Global HFC emissions from the refrigeration sector

    This table shows HFC emissions from the refrigeration sector – including air conditioning – in million tonnes of CO2 equivalent for about 40 countries that are signatories...

    • Last update : 2022/01/20
    • Langues : English
    • Themes : General information on environment (climate change, ozone depletion…)
  • Cryogenics in the pharmaceutical industry: drug design and bioavailability improvement

    Research activities in the pharmaceutical sector focus primarily on developing novel drug formulations which can elicit the desired response upon being administered to the patient...

    • Last update : 2022/11/21
    • Langues : French, English
    • Themes : Freeze-drying in biology and medicine, Cryobiology, cryomedicine: general information
  • Thermophysical properties of hydrocarbon refrigerants

    Thermophysical properties of over 20 hydrocarbon refrigerants, including single-component and blends.

    • Last update : 2022/06/17
    • Langues : English
    • Themes : Hydrocarbons, Blends
  • Thermophysical properties of HFO refrigerants

    Thermophysical properties of over 50 HFO refrigerants, including single-component and blends.

    • Last update : 2022/06/17
    • Langues : English
    • Themes : HFO et HCFO, Blends
  • Thermophysical properties of HFC refrigerants

    Thermophysical properties of over 100 HFC refrigerants, including single-component and blends.

    • Last update : 2022/06/17
    • Langues : English
    • Themes : HFCs, HFO et HCFO, Blends
  • Hydrocarbon refrigerants

    Hydrocarbons such as R290 (propane), R600a (isobutane) or R1270 (propene/propylene) are low GWP non-toxic natural refrigerants with excellent thermodynamic properties. They offer an...

    • Last update : 2022/06/22
    • Langues : French, English
    • Themes : Hydrocarbons, Containment, refrigerant charge reduction
  • Environmental impact of the ice cream industry

    This summary document describes the environmental impact of ice cream manufacturing, which is mainly due to the energy consumption and refrigerants used.

    • Last update : 2022/11/17
    • Langues : French, English
    • Themes : General information on environment (climate change, ozone depletion…)
  • Nanorefrigerants

    Nanorefrigerants are created by adding nanoparticles in suspension to a base refrigerant. They have a thermal conductivity that is 15% to 104% higher than that of the corresponding...

    • Last update : 2022/06/17
    • Langues : English, French
    • Themes : Nanofluids