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  • Residential CO2 heat pump system for combined space heating and hot water heating

    This paper was presented at the IIR Gustav Lorentzen Conference in Glasgow (Sep. 2004). A theoretical and experimental study was carried out for a residential brine-to-water CO2 heat pump system for combined space heating and hot water heating - a...

    • Publication date : 2004/11/24
  • The hidden cold chain behind Valentine’s Day roses

    The average journey of a Valentine’s rose, from harvesting in South America to the point of sale in the US, is 10-12 days during which the role of refrigeration is essential.

    • Publication date : 2019/02/28
  • Updating ammonia dispersion models

    Research is underway in order to improve existing ammonia-dispersion behaviour models.

    • Publication date : 2012/01/19
  • LHC accelerating science

    The first beam in the Large Hadron Collider at CERN was steered around the full 27 km of the world's most powerful particle accelerator on September 10, 2008, in Geneva. Beams of protons circulating in opposite directions are to be brought into...

    • Publication date : 2008/10/25
  • Heating and cooling ceilings

    The upcoming translation of European Directive 2002/91/EC on improving energy efficiency in buildings into EU national legislation in January 2006 calls for a clear improvement in the energy efficiency of cooling and heating systems. In view of...

    • Publication date : 2005/10/26
  • Plans for a floating LNG factory

    This new type of floating factory could give access to off-shore reserves, without the use of long and expensive ocean-bed pipelines

    • Publication date : 2012/04/23
  • Briefs: US: Updating installation standards

    It is estimated that over 50% of the air conditioners in US homes are under-efficient, due to improper installation; 62% are improperly charged, 50% are oversized and 70% lack proper airflow input at the coil. The performance of such poorly...

    • Publication date : 2009/02/25
  • Buildings: heating and cooling equipment roadmap

    At the request of the G8, IEA is developing a series of roadmaps for some of the most important technologies needed for achieving a global energy-related CO2 emissions target in 2050 of 50% below current levels. Energy-efficient Buildings: Heating...

    • Publication date : 2011/08/11
  • Briefs: Evaporating tiles to cool rooms

    UK Loughborough University's Zephyr project "Ceiling tiles" was finalist in the Financial Times Climate Change Challenge. The tiles draw up heat from a room which passes through a moist wick surface in the ceiling tile, achieving cooling lowering...

    • Publication date : 2009/08/13
  • CO2 technology for ice-skating rinks

    Nowadays, the use of large amounts of ammonia in public places is restricted by regulations in several countries, for safety reasons. Hence, new skating rinks with direct ammonia systems can no longer be built, although it is thought that they...

    • Publication date : 2004/11/19
  • Argentina: training sessions for the transition to alternative refrigerants

    The Centro Studi Galileo, located in Italia, announced that training sessions will start in Argentina in 2018.

    • Publication date : 2018/02/01
  • Refrigerating food uses the most energy

    According to surveys conducted in Germany in 1999, by the Hanover-based FKW and the Dresden-based ILK, production, transport storage and distribution of food products required approximately 155 000 GWh annually in Germany. Refrigeration accounts...

    • Publication date : 2007/12/03
  • Latin America commercial refrigeration equipment market.

    The Latin America commercial refrigeration equipment market was valued at USD 741.4 million in 2012, and is expected to grow to USD 1,108.9 million by 2018.

    • Publication date : 2013/10/30
    • Subjects: Figures, economy
  • 2016 chiller market in Latin America

    Overall, the Latin American chiller market is now around USD 300 million, accounting for about 4% of the world chiller market.

    • Publication date : 2016/12/19
  • How to evaluate the refrigerating capacity of compressors?

    Most compressor manufacturers express the capacity of their compressors using the "nominal capacity" of the motor, expressed in HP (1 Horse Power = 0.735 kW) which does not give precise information on the refrigerating capacity of the compressor....

    • Publication date : 2007/05/04
  • CryoHub: EU project CryoHub is inviting cold chain companies to become ‘CryoHub Champions’

    The CryoHub innovation project investigates and extends the potential of large-scale Cryogenic Energy Storage (CES) and applies the stored energy for both cooling and power generation.

    • Publication date : 2016/06/28
  • Statutory meetings

    The Beijing Congress The Publications Sub-Committee, the members of the Science and Technology Council who are in the Management Committee and the Management Committee held their meetings in Karlsruhe, Germany, on March 23-24, 2007 thanks to the...

    • Publication date : 2007/05/04
  • 6th FRISBEE meeting.

    The 6th FRISBEE meeting, hosted by Federalimentare, was held on March 6-7, 2013 in Rome, Italy.

    • Publication date : 2013/05/10
  • Meeting: EPEE

    A meeting was held on January 19, 2005, between EPEE (European Partnership for Energy and the Environment) represented by Friedrich Busch, Director General, and the IIR represented by D. Coulomb and J.L. Dupont. During this meeting, information...

    • Publication date : 2005/06/14
  • Meeting: Orlando

    Didier Coulomb attended the ASHRAE Winter Meeting in Orlando (USA) in February 2005. This important conference and large exhibition for air-conditioning and refrigeration engineers, particularly from the USA, also was the occasion to strengthen...

    • Publication date : 2005/06/14
  • Statutory meetings

    The Publications Sub-Committee, the restricted Science and Technology Council and the Management Committee held their meetings in Paris, on December 7-8, 2006. The main issues discussed were progress in the renovation of the Fridoc database, the...

    • Publication date : 2007/02/12
  • IGO meeting

    The IIR is an intergovernmental organization based in Paris, like of course several agencies of the United Nations Organization or OECD, but also like other small specialized organizations: the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection...

    • Publication date : 2005/06/14
  • Brief: Distinctions

    François Billiard, Honorary Director of the IIR, was awarded the prestigious Charles Tellier Medal by the French Refrigeration Association (AFF). Nevin Amos, Secretary of Commission D2 and President of the IIR's Working Party on Cold Chain...

    • Publication date : 2005/07/19
  • Meeting: UNEP

    Didier Coulomb and Daniel Viard, Deputy Director, met Rajendra Shende, Head of the Energy and OzonAction Branch of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), on April 6, 2005. They particularly exchanged ideas on the future of refrigerants...

    • Publication date : 2005/06/14
  • Brief: Distinctions

    - François Billiard, Honorary Director of the IIR, was awarded the prestigious Charles Tellier Medal by the French Refrigeration Association (AFF). - Nevin Amos, Secretary of Commission D2 and President of the IIR's Working Party on Cold Chain...

    • Publication date : 2005/07/19
  • IIR committee meetings

    The Management Committee (MC) of the IIR met in Paris on November 29, 2005. On November 28, two other meetings took place: the Publications Sub-Committee (PSC) meeting and the meeting of the representatives of the Science and Technology Council to...

    • Publication date : 2006/01/28
  • IIR Committee meetings

    - The Management Committee (MC) of the IIR, chaired by H. van der Ree, met at the head office of the IIR on November 6, 2004. The MC held a large strategic debate on the future, the position of the IIR and communication to be developed,...

    • Publication date : 2005/02/11
  • Briefs: Statutory meetings

    The IIR's statutory committees met in Paris on June 9-11, 2010. In particular, the committees took decisions regarding IIR publications policy and the new information system and related new IIR services that will be implemented in 2011. The aim is...

    • Publication date : 2011/02/04
  • The new e-Bulletin

    Many of you are already aware that the Bulletin of the IIR is now being provided in electronic form. The new e-Bulletin, available via Internet, contains all the information provided in the paper version of the Bulletin: abstracts of articles and...

    • Publication date : 2006/07/26
  • Meeting: Eurofreeze 2005

    The International Workshop Eurofreeze 2005 on Individual Quick Freezing of Foods was held in Sofia (Bulgaria) on January 13-15, 2005. It was organized by the Refrigeration Science and Technology Division of the Technical University of Sofia, with...

    • Publication date : 2005/06/14
  • Global warming potential (GWP) of HFC refrigerants

    Using the latest updated data from UNEP’s RTOC 2022 report, we have compiled the 100-year GWP and 20-year GWP values of hydrofluorocarbon-based (HFC) refrigerants. Our table includes...

    • Last update : 2023/09/15
    • Langues : French, English
    • Themes : HFCs
  • Additive manufacturing of regenerators for caloric cooling

    In many areas of engineering, additive manufacturing allows the production of complex and multifunctional products that could not be manufactured using traditional methods. In the...

    • Last update : 2022/09/16
    • Langues : French, English
    • Themes : Caloric cooling (magnetocaloric, electrocaloric, elastocaloric and barocaloric cooling)
  • Cryogenics in the pharmaceutical industry: drug design and bioavailability improvement

    Research activities in the pharmaceutical sector focus primarily on developing novel drug formulations which can elicit the desired response upon being administered to the patient...

    • Last update : 2023/03/10
    • Langues : French, English
    • Themes : Freeze-drying in biology and medicine, Cryobiology, cryomedicine: general information
  • Environmental impact of the ice cream industry

    This summary document describes the environmental impact of ice cream manufacturing, which is mainly due to the energy consumption and refrigerants used.

    • Last update : 2022/11/17
    • Langues : French, English
    • Themes : General information on environment (climate change, ozone depletion…)
  • Additive manufacturing of heat exchangers

    In the refrigeration industry, additive manufacturing (colloquially referred to as “3D printing”) makes it possible to fabricate novel, complex and potentially more energy efficient...

    • Last update : 2022/09/07
    • Langues : French, English
    • Themes : Evaporators, condensers and other heat exchangers
  • Ice cream manufacturing, environmental impact and market data

    From a physico-chemical point of view, ice cream is a complex, frozen multiphase mixture. The manufacturing process includes several stages of freezing which are described in this...

    • Last update : 2023/06/30
    • Langues : French, English
    • Themes : Ice creams
  • Cryogenic nitrogen in the food and beverage industry

    The adoption of cryogenic processes in the food and beverage industry is predominantly driven by liquid nitrogen (LIN), and it is the preferred candidate for food chilling and...

    • Last update : 2023/11/07
    • Langues : French, English
    • Themes : Freezing of foodstuffs
  • Hydrocarbon refrigerants

    Hydrocarbons such as R290 (propane), R600a (isobutane) or R1270 (propene/propylene) are low GWP non-toxic natural refrigerants with excellent thermodynamic properties. They offer an...

    • Last update : 2022/06/22
    • Langues : French, English
    • Themes : Hydrocarbons, Containment, refrigerant charge reduction
  • Liquefied Natural Gas: production process and cold energy recovery

    Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is natural gas that has been cooled to about -160 °C and turned into a liquid to facilitate transportation and storage. A typical LNG supply chain...

    • Last update : 2023/06/23
    • Langues : French, English
    • Themes : LNG and LPG
  • Nanorefrigerants

    Nanorefrigerants are created by adding nanoparticles in suspension to a base refrigerant. They have a thermal conductivity that is 15% to 104% higher than that of the corresponding...

    • Last update : 2022/06/17
    • Langues : English, French
    • Themes : Nanofluids
  • Cold storage conditions for fruits and vegetables

    Practical recommendations for the cold storage of over 200 cultivars of fruits, vegetables and herbs (storage temperatures, relative humidity, storage time, controlled atmosphere...

    • Last update : 2023/01/16
    • Langues : French, English
    • Themes : Fruit, Vegetables
  • Thermophysical properties of HFC refrigerants

    Thermophysical properties of over 100 HFC refrigerants, including single-component and blends.

    • Last update : 2022/06/17
    • Langues : English
    • Themes : HFCs, HFO et HCFO, Blends
  • Global HFC emissions from the refrigeration sector

    This table shows HFC emissions from the refrigeration sector – including air conditioning – in million tonnes of CO2 equivalent for about 40 countries that are signatories...

    • Last update : 2022/01/20
    • Langues : English
    • Themes : General information on environment (climate change, ozone depletion…)
  • Thermophysical properties of hydrocarbon refrigerants

    Thermophysical properties of over 20 hydrocarbon refrigerants, including single-component and blends.

    • Last update : 2022/06/17
    • Langues : English
    • Themes : Hydrocarbons, Blends
  • Thermophysical properties of HFO refrigerants

    Thermophysical properties of over 50 HFO refrigerants, including single-component and blends.

    • Last update : 2022/06/17
    • Langues : English
    • Themes : HFO et HCFO, Blends