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  • Briefs: London tube

    The London Tube has air-conditioned trains at last. The first of 191 brand new walk-through air-conditioned trains came into service in August 2010 on the Metropolitan line. Roll-out should be complete on this line by 2011, by which time...

    • Publication date : 2011/02/07
  • Underground river to cool the London tube

    The "Cooling the Tube" competition in 2003, promising GBP 100 000 to those finding a workable solution to cool the Tube, received 3400 entries. Modern systems with large tunnels and surface lines can be cooled using air-cooling systems. However,...

    • Publication date : 2005/02/11
  • GL2012 highlights: low-charge propane air-conditioning system using small section copper tubes

    Propane air conditioner with smaller copper tubes and a smaller (and thus safer) refrigerant charge.

    • Publication date : 2012/09/28
  • Ice cube?

    A giant ice cube has appeared in Minneapolis and isn't going to melt. Described by its Swiss architect, Jacques Herzog, as "A big ice cube for Ice City," the cube is in fact an extension to the Walker Art Center. The icy appearance of the recently...

    • Publication date : 2005/07/19
  • Food invention: frozen tea cubes

    Iceland Food has expressed interest in a student prize-winning invention: frozen fruit tea cubes.

    • Publication date : 2013/09/12
  • Briefs: Ice cubes at over 10°C

    Ice slurries are well known for their capacity to transport heat within confined systems. Cemagref is currently working on a new type of two-phase secondary refrigerant: a gas-hydrate slurry which could pave the way for applications in the...

    • Publication date : 2008/10/25
  • Performance of R32 and R290 as alternatives to R22 and R410A in domestic air conditioning

    According to the authors, regardless of the capacity difference, R290 could be considered as the most appropriate substitute in air conditioners with small finned tube heat exchangers

    • Publication date : 2014/09/25
  • Heat exchanger design can improve the performance of PCMs

    According to a recent review article, optimising the design of heat exchangers in latent heat thermal energy storage systems (LHTES) is one way of improving the thermal conductivity of phase change materials...

    • Publication date : 2021/02/12
    • Subjects: Technology
  • Vaccines: a step towards thermostability

    Ensilication of the protein molecules of a vaccine against tuberculosis prevents its deterioration by heat.

    • Publication date : 2019/10/30
    • Subjects: Developing country
  • CO2 technology for ice-skating rinks

    Nowadays, the use of large amounts of ammonia in public places is restricted by regulations in several countries, for safety reasons. Hence, new skating rinks with direct ammonia systems can no longer be built, although it is thought that they...

    • Publication date : 2004/11/19
  • Solar absorption air conditioning

    When do you need air conditioning? When it is hot and sunny. This is why Broad Air Conditioning, China, one of the world's largest manufacturers of direct-fired absorption chillers, has been focusing on solar absorption air-conditioning systems...

    • Publication date : 2006/11/15
  • CHEs in heat pumps

    In its Annex 33, "Compact Heat Exchangers in Heat Pumping Equipment" issued in September 2010, the Heat Pump Programme details the benefits of using compact heat exchangers (CHEs): . Improved heat exchanger thermal effectiveness: thermal...

    • Publication date : 2011/02/07
  • Cryogenics: A new cryocooler

    A new cryocooler has been demonstrated at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) that combines small-size, rapid cooling, low temperatures and high efficiency. It is a "pulse tube" design that uses oscillating helium gas to...

    • Publication date : 2007/05/04
  • Edible packaging: drink a beverage and eat the bottle too!

    Prof. David A. Edwards has developed creations that include inhalable chocolate, inhalable caffeine, and a tuberculosis vaccine in the form of a spray.

    • Publication date : 2012/07/17
  • Green buildings: Expo 2010 in Shanghai, China

    Expo 2010 in Shanghai, China is on, and is expected to draw 70 million visitors. With a theme of "Better City, Better Life", it aims to explore the full potential of urban life in the 21st century and how to create an eco-friendly society....

    • Publication date : 2011/02/04
  • Liquefied Natural Gas: production process and cold energy recovery

    Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is natural gas that has been cooled to about -160 °C and turned into a liquid to facilitate transportation and storage. A typical LNG supply chain...

    • Last update : 2022/06/20
    • Langues : French, English
    • Themes : LNG and LPG
  • Nanorefrigerants

    Nanorefrigerants are created by adding nanoparticles in suspension to a base refrigerant. They have a thermal conductivity that is 15% to 104% higher than that of the corresponding...

    • Last update : 2022/06/17
    • Langues : English, French
    • Themes : Nanofluids
  • Additive manufacturing of heat exchangers

    In the refrigeration industry, additive manufacturing (colloquially referred to as “3D printing”) makes it possible to fabricate novel, complex and potentially more energy efficient...

    • Last update : 2022/09/07
    • Langues : French, English
    • Themes : Evaporators, condensers and other heat exchangers
  • Additive manufacturing of regenerators for caloric cooling

    In many areas of engineering, additive manufacturing allows the production of complex and multifunctional products that could not be manufactured using traditional methods. In the...

    • Last update : 2022/09/16
    • Langues : French, English
    • Themes : Caloric cooling (magnetocaloric, electrocaloric, elastocaloric and barocaloric cooling)
  • Thermophysical properties of HFC refrigerants

    Thermophysical properties of over 100 HFC refrigerants, including single-component and blends.

    • Last update : 2022/06/17
    • Langues : English
    • Themes : HFCs, HFO et HCFO, Blends
  • Thermophysical properties of HFO refrigerants

    Thermophysical properties of over 50 HFO refrigerants, including single-component and blends.

    • Last update : 2022/06/17
    • Langues : English
    • Themes : HFO et HCFO, Blends
  • Hydrocarbon refrigerants

    Hydrocarbons such as R290 (propane), R600a (isobutane) or R1270 (propene/propylene) are low GWP non-toxic natural refrigerants with excellent thermodynamic properties. They offer an...

    • Last update : 2022/06/22
    • Langues : French, English
    • Themes : Hydrocarbons, Containment, refrigerant charge reduction
  • Thermophysical properties of hydrocarbon refrigerants

    Thermophysical properties of over 20 hydrocarbon refrigerants, including single-component and blends.

    • Last update : 2022/06/17
    • Langues : English
    • Themes : Hydrocarbons, Blends
  • For IIR members only

    Ice cream manufacturing, environmental impact and market data

    From a physico-chemical point of view, ice cream is a complex, frozen multiphase mixture. The manufacturing process includes several stages of freezing which are described in this...

    • Last update : 2022/10/12
    • Langues : French, English
    • Themes : Ice creams
  • For IIR members only

    Global cold storage capacity

    This table presents the cold storage capacity in about 50 countries, based on data from the Global Cold Chain Alliance (GCCA).

    • Last update : 2021/12/06
    • Langues : English
    • Themes : Refrigerated storage: economics and statistics