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  • HFO-1234yf news

    HFO-1234yf, developed by DuPont and Honeywell as a substitute for HFC-134a in mobile air-conditioning applications in response to EU 2006/40 Directive which bans the use of refrigerants with a GWP higher than 150 in new types of vehicles by...

    • Publication date : 2011/02/04
  • HFO-1234ze news

    On January 30, 2011, HFO-1234ze, was accepted for use in foam and aerosol applications by the US EPA. HFO-1234ze (GWP = 6) is already used in Europe and Japan in a variety of foam and aerosol applications.Klima-Therm and...

    • Publication date : 2011/06/08
  • Refrigerant news: HFO-1234yf

    The US EPA has proposed to list HFO-1234yf as an acceptable alternative refrigerant in mobile air-conditioning (MAC) systems. The proposed decision only applies to new MAC systems in passenger cars and trucks since EPA had previously determined...

    • Publication date : 2010/03/07
  • MAC: CO2 or HFO-1234yf?

    The SAE Alternate Refrigerant Symposium held in Phoenix, USA, on June 10-12, 2008, provided an opportunity for the various stakeholders of the global automotive industry to present their views regarding the next-generation refrigerant in mobile...

    • Publication date : 2008/08/12
  • First car models using HFO-1234yf

    During the recent Mobile Air Conditioning Society Worldwide convention and trade show in Las Vegas, USA, discussions focused on the vehicles will have the new HFO-1234yf refrigerant. It was revealed that one vehicle was already being sold with the...

    • Publication date : 2012/07/03
  • UK: Waitrose installs HFO chillers in store

    Waitrose, the English supermarket chain, is testing chillers using HFO-1234ze refrigerant at its supermarket in Bromley, near London, UK.

    • Publication date : 2012/02/17
  • US: HFO blowing agent approved by EPA

    Honeywell recently announced that its new HFO-based Solstice Liquid Blowing Agent (LBA) had received final approval from EPA to be used in foam insulation in refrigerators and other applications in the US. Whirlpool Corporation will be the first...

    • Publication date : 2012/11/27
    • Subjects: Regulation
  • New HFO/CO2 blends in the pipeline

    The refrigeration and air-conditioning sector has long been divided into two distinct camps, that promoting natural refrigerants and that developing low-GWP fluorocarbons. But could this be about to change?

    • Publication date : 2013/03/04
  • DuPont’s new HFO 1336mzz could replace R123

    DuPont has announced it is to start small scale production of a new low GWP HFO which could replace R123.

    • Publication date : 2014/05/22
    • Subjects: HFCs alternatives
  • Innovative HFO/CO2 cascade for supermarket application

    An innovative CO2/R1234ze cascade refrigeration system with heat recovery has been installed into a 1500 m2 sales area supermarket in Parma, Italy.

    • Publication date : 2016/08/08
    • Subjects: HFCs alternatives
  • IPCC confirms HFO GWPs are less than 1

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has confirmed that both R1234yf and R1234ze(E) have global warming potentials below that of carbon dioxide.

    • Publication date : 2014/02/24
  • Household refrigerators: HFO performance as drop-in replacement for R-134a

    During the IIR co-sponsored International Refrigeration and Air-conditioning Conference at Purdue in 2012, K.M Karber et al. from Oak Ridge National Laboratory, United States, presented* the results of a performance test on R1234yf and R1234ze,...

    • Publication date : 2013/06/07
  • MAC in the US: HFO-1234yf approved; HFC-134a being phased out ?

    On February 28, 2011, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued final approval for use of HFO-1234yf in motor vehicle air conditioning in new cars and light trucks. HFO-1234yf had already been approved for use in Japan...

    • Publication date : 2011/06/08
  • State of the art on the flammability of HFOs

    An article recently published in the IJR reviews the flammability characteristics of 48 HFOs and blends for various experimental conditions.

    • Publication date : 2020/02/05
  • Some HFOs have lower GWPs than CO2

    US EPA has evaluated new HFO refrigerants as having similar or lower global warming potential than CO2.

    • Publication date : 2015/02/01
    • Subjects: HFCs alternatives
  • Thermophysical properties of HFO refrigerants

    Thermophysical properties of over 50 HFO refrigerants, including single-component and blends.

    • Last update : 2022/06/17
    • Langues : English
    • Themes : HFO et HCFO, Blends
  • Thermophysical properties of HFC refrigerants

    Thermophysical properties of over 100 HFC refrigerants, including single-component and blends.

    • Last update : 2022/06/17
    • Langues : English
    • Themes : HFCs, HFO et HCFO, Blends
  • Global HFC emissions from the refrigeration sector

    This table shows HFC emissions from the refrigeration sector – including air conditioning – in million tonnes of CO2 equivalent for about 40 countries that are signatories...

    • Last update : 2022/01/20
    • Langues : English
    • Themes : General information on environment (climate change, ozone depletion…)
  • Hydrocarbon refrigerants

    Hydrocarbons such as R290 (propane), R600a (isobutane) or R1270 (propene/propylene) are low GWP non-toxic natural refrigerants with excellent thermodynamic properties. They offer an...

    • Last update : 2022/06/22
    • Langues : French, English
    • Themes : Hydrocarbons, Containment, refrigerant charge reduction
  • Additive manufacturing of regenerators for caloric cooling

    In many areas of engineering, additive manufacturing allows the production of complex and multifunctional products that could not be manufactured using traditional methods. In the...

    • Last update : 2022/09/16
    • Langues : French, English
    • Themes : Caloric cooling (magnetocaloric, electrocaloric, elastocaloric and barocaloric cooling)
  • Cold storage conditions for fruits and vegetables

    Practical recommendations for the cold storage of over 200 cultivars of fruits, vegetables and herbs (storage temperatures, relative humidity, storage time, controlled atmosphere...

    • Last update : 2023/01/16
    • Langues : French, English
    • Themes : Fruit, Vegetables
  • For IIR members only

    Ice cream manufacturing, environmental impact and market data

    From a physico-chemical point of view, ice cream is a complex, frozen multiphase mixture. The manufacturing process includes several stages of freezing which are described in this...

    • Last update : 2022/10/12
    • Langues : French, English
    • Themes : Ice creams
  • Nanorefrigerants

    Nanorefrigerants are created by adding nanoparticles in suspension to a base refrigerant. They have a thermal conductivity that is 15% to 104% higher than that of the corresponding...

    • Last update : 2022/06/17
    • Langues : English, French
    • Themes : Nanofluids
  • Thermophysical properties of hydrocarbon refrigerants

    Thermophysical properties of over 20 hydrocarbon refrigerants, including single-component and blends.

    • Last update : 2022/06/17
    • Langues : English
    • Themes : Hydrocarbons, Blends
  • Environmental impact of the ice cream industry

    This summary document describes the environmental impact of ice cream manufacturing, which is mainly due to the energy consumption and refrigerants used.

    • Last update : 2022/11/17
    • Langues : French, English
    • Themes : General information on environment (climate change, ozone depletion…)
  • Additive manufacturing of heat exchangers

    In the refrigeration industry, additive manufacturing (colloquially referred to as “3D printing”) makes it possible to fabricate novel, complex and potentially more energy efficient...

    • Last update : 2022/09/07
    • Langues : French, English
    • Themes : Evaporators, condensers and other heat exchangers
  • Cryogenics in the pharmaceutical industry: drug design and bioavailability improvement

    Research activities in the pharmaceutical sector focus primarily on developing novel drug formulations which can elicit the desired response upon being administered to the patient...

    • Last update : 2022/11/21
    • Langues : French, English
    • Themes : Freeze-drying in biology and medicine, Cryobiology, cryomedicine: general information
  • Liquefied Natural Gas: production process and cold energy recovery

    Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is natural gas that has been cooled to about -160 °C and turned into a liquid to facilitate transportation and storage. A typical LNG supply chain...

    • Last update : 2022/06/20
    • Langues : French, English
    • Themes : LNG and LPG