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  • Briefs: Snow fleas and transplant organs

    Researchers have discovered that a potent antifreeze protein (AFP) that protects snow fleas from freezing may allow longer storage of transplant organs. The protein has been isolated and inhibits ice growth, potentially making it possible to store...

    • Publication date : 2007/02/12
  • A Norwegian project: Snow for the future

    An independent research organisation and a Norwegian university are developing a heat pump system to produce snow, even if the temperature are above freezing.

    • Publication date : 2017/06/02
  • Japan: snow cooling created greater CO2 emissions

    An experiment to ship snow from the north of Japan to help reduce the air conditioning load in Tokyo has created CO2 emissions three times greater than the emissions reduction achieved.

    • Publication date : 2014/02/06
  • Carbon dioxide snow to clean spatial telescope

    An interesting method to keep the Webb Space Telescope mirror, seven times larger than Hubble, spotless.

    • Publication date : 2015/11/02
  • Report on "Cryogen-Expo" 2004, Moscow

    The 3rd International Specialized Trade Fair "Cryogen-Expo", was held in Moscow on November 16-19, 2004. The main purpose of this successful event was to demonstrate and promote the achievements of cryogenic engineering and applied technologies in...

    • Publication date : 2004/12/22
  • UNEP knowledge maps of refrigeration sector organisations and training centres worldwide

    UNEP has launched its OzonAction Knowledge Maps tool, which offers access to data and information about relevant stakeholders in the refrigeration sector, including air conditioning and heat pumps (RACHP)...

    • Publication date : 2021/07/15
    • Subjects: General information
  • China first refrigerated container train leaves for Moscow.

    A new transport link between China and Russia.

    • Publication date : 2017/01/31
  • Cold storage of evergreen seedlings affected by global warming

    Due to global warming, conifer seedlings are more often exposed to desiccation during snow-free winters. Overwinter cold storage allows to improve their survival, provided that...

    • Publication date : 2022/05/23
    • Subjects: Technology, Environment
  • Incredible Harbin ice sculptures

    The 31st International Snow and Ice Festival opened on 5 January 2015 in Harbin, northeast China.

    • Publication date : 2015/03/06
  • Frozen “to death” and… “resuscitated”!

    Justin Smith was found “dead frozen” by his father Don in Pennsylvania. After 12 hours spent in the snow at -20°C, Justin was first declared dead. The secret that saved Smith lies in the way the body slows down as it gets colder.

    • Publication date : 2016/06/21
  • Eco-friendly skiing in Spain

    Dutch architects working for SnowWorld say they have found a way to build an indoor ski facility with a difference in warm Barcelona.

    • Publication date : 2012/04/25
  • Cryogenics: Ed

    Ed, a discount grocery operating in France, does not use pallets in dual-temperature trucks to deliver products from its 8 warehouses to its 800 retail outlets. Instead, Ed has opted for a cryogenic refrigeration system combining carbon dioxide...

    • Publication date : 2007/05/04
  • World's largest indoor ski slope in Dubai

    Dubai has announced it will build the world’s largest indoor ski resort, with a 1.2 kilometre run.

    • Publication date : 2015/10/12
  • Chill factorE

    Chill factorE, the UK's longest and the world's widest indoor ski slope (180 m long and 100 m wide), also featuring a separate luge slope, has opened in Manchester. In the GBP 31 million facility, snow is produced at night: the air is lowered to...

    • Publication date : 2008/01/23
  • Brief: 12th c-dig meeting

    Uusikaupunki in Finland was the setting for the 12 th c-dig meeting in April 2005 attended by 55 delegates. Roughly half the presentations were by Finnish companies, reflecting the tremendous focus on carbon dioxide in the region in recent years....

    • Publication date : 2005/06/14
  • Global HFC emissions from the refrigeration sector

    This table shows HFC emissions from the refrigeration sector – including air conditioning – in million tonnes of CO2 equivalent for about 40 countries that are signatories...

    • Last update : 2022/01/20
    • Langues : English
    • Themes : General information on environment (climate change, ozone depletion…)
  • Additive manufacturing of regenerators for caloric cooling

    In many areas of engineering, additive manufacturing allows the production of complex and multifunctional products that could not be manufactured using traditional methods. In the...

    • Last update : 2022/09/16
    • Langues : French, English
    • Themes : Caloric cooling (magnetocaloric, electrocaloric, elastocaloric and barocaloric cooling)
  • Cryogenic nitrogen in the food and beverage industry

    The adoption of cryogenic processes in the food and beverage industry is predominantly driven by liquid nitrogen (LIN), and it is the preferred candidate for food chilling and...

    • Last update : 2023/11/07
    • Langues : French, English
    • Themes : Freezing of foodstuffs
  • Environmental impact of the ice cream industry

    This summary document describes the environmental impact of ice cream manufacturing, which is mainly due to the energy consumption and refrigerants used.

    • Last update : 2022/11/17
    • Langues : French, English
    • Themes : General information on environment (climate change, ozone depletion…)
  • Ice cream manufacturing, environmental impact and market data

    From a physico-chemical point of view, ice cream is a complex, frozen multiphase mixture. The manufacturing process includes several stages of freezing which are described in this...

    • Last update : 2023/06/30
    • Langues : French, English
    • Themes : Ice creams
  • Nanorefrigerants

    Nanorefrigerants are created by adding nanoparticles in suspension to a base refrigerant. They have a thermal conductivity that is 15% to 104% higher than that of the corresponding...

    • Last update : 2022/06/17
    • Langues : English, French
    • Themes : Nanofluids
  • For IIR members only

    Global cold storage capacity

    This table presents the cold storage capacity in about 50 countries, based on data from the Global Cold Chain Alliance (GCCA).

    • Last update : 2021/12/06
    • Langues : English
    • Themes : Refrigerated storage: economics and statistics
  • For IIR members only

    Heat pump stock in Europe

    This table presents the stock of installed heat pumps, the CO2 emissions avoided and the number of jobs in the heat pump sector in Europe.

    • Last update : 2021/12/14
    • Langues : English
    • Themes : Heat pumps, energy recovery: economics and statistics
  • Global warming potential (GWP) of HFC refrigerants

    Using the latest updated data from UNEP’s RTOC 2022 report, we have compiled the 100-year GWP and 20-year GWP values of hydrofluorocarbon-based (HFC) refrigerants. Our table includes...

    • Last update : 2023/09/15
    • Langues : French, English
    • Themes : HFCs
  • Hydrocarbon refrigerants

    Hydrocarbons such as R290 (propane), R600a (isobutane) or R1270 (propene/propylene) are low GWP non-toxic natural refrigerants with excellent thermodynamic properties. They offer an...

    • Last update : 2022/06/22
    • Langues : French, English
    • Themes : Hydrocarbons, Containment, refrigerant charge reduction
  • Cryogenics in the pharmaceutical industry: drug design and bioavailability improvement

    Research activities in the pharmaceutical sector focus primarily on developing novel drug formulations which can elicit the desired response upon being administered to the patient...

    • Last update : 2023/03/10
    • Langues : French, English
    • Themes : Freeze-drying in biology and medicine, Cryobiology, cryomedicine: general information
  • Additive manufacturing of heat exchangers

    In the refrigeration industry, additive manufacturing (colloquially referred to as “3D printing”) makes it possible to fabricate novel, complex and potentially more energy efficient...

    • Last update : 2022/09/07
    • Langues : French, English
    • Themes : Evaporators, condensers and other heat exchangers
  • Liquefied Natural Gas: production process and cold energy recovery

    Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is natural gas that has been cooled to about -160 °C and turned into a liquid to facilitate transportation and storage. A typical LNG supply chain...

    • Last update : 2023/06/23
    • Langues : French, English
    • Themes : LNG and LPG