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  • Additive manufacturing of regenerators for caloric cooling

    In many areas of engineering, additive manufacturing allows the production of complex and multifunctional products that could not be manufactured using traditional methods. In the...

    • Last update : 2022/09/16
    • Langues : French, English
    • Themes : Caloric cooling (magnetocaloric, electrocaloric, elastocaloric and barocaloric cooling)
  • Liquefied Natural Gas: production process and cold energy recovery

    Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is natural gas that has been cooled to about -160 °C and turned into a liquid to facilitate transportation and storage. A typical LNG supply chain...

    • Last update : 2022/06/20
    • Langues : French, English
    • Themes : LNG and LPG
  • For IIR members only

    Ice cream manufacturing, environmental impact and market data

    From a physico-chemical point of view, ice cream is a complex, frozen multiphase mixture. The manufacturing process includes several stages of freezing which are described in this...

    • Last update : 2022/10/12
    • Langues : French, English
    • Themes : Ice creams
  • Additive manufacturing of heat exchangers

    In the refrigeration industry, additive manufacturing (colloquially referred to as “3D printing”) makes it possible to fabricate novel, complex and potentially more energy efficient...

    • Last update : 2022/09/07
    • Langues : French, English
    • Themes : Evaporators, condensers and other heat exchangers
  • Cryogenics in the pharmaceutical industry: drug design and bioavailability improvement

    Research activities in the pharmaceutical sector focus primarily on developing novel drug formulations which can elicit the desired response upon being administered to the patient...

    • Last update : 2022/11/21
    • Langues : French, English
    • Themes : Freeze-drying in biology and medicine, Cryobiology, cryomedicine: general information
  • Hydrocarbon refrigerants

    Hydrocarbons such as R290 (propane), R600a (isobutane) or R1270 (propene/propylene) are low GWP non-toxic natural refrigerants with excellent thermodynamic properties. They offer an...

    • Last update : 2022/06/22
    • Langues : French, English
    • Themes : Hydrocarbons, Containment, refrigerant charge reduction
  • Environmental impact of the ice cream industry

    This summary document describes the environmental impact of ice cream manufacturing, which is mainly due to the energy consumption and refrigerants used.

    • Last update : 2022/11/17
    • Langues : French, English
    • Themes : General information on environment (climate change, ozone depletion…)