Search results

  • Slight increase in global LNG trade in 2020

    Global LNG trade continued to grow in 2020 albeit at a slower pace than the previous year. Meanwhile, orders for LNG-powered vessels have increased significantly.

    • Publication date : 2021/10/22
    • Subjects: Figures, economy
  • Applications of artificial intelligence to refrigeration plants

    A paper from the IIR TPTPR conference presents the energy performance and maintenance benefits of 19 refrigeration plants using artificial intelligence techniques.

    • Publication date : 2021/12/15
    • Subjects: Technology
  • Legionnaires’ disease

    Two outbreaks of Legionnaires' disease are in the news: - Thirteen deaths have occurred among 85 patients who contracted Legionnaires' disease in the northern French prefecture of Pas-de-Calais. The main cause of the outbreak is a cooling tower at...

    • Publication date : 2004/04/28
  • Intelligent fridges

    - It is estimated that networked fridges will be widely used by 2015. How do consumers feel about such fridges that monitor product use, create shopping lists and arrange deliveries online? A recent survey involving 4600 shoppers in 8 countries...

    • Publication date : 2008/08/12
  • Briefs: Illegal refrigerants

    Over 108 tonnes of illegal refrigerant have been seized by customs officers around the world in a special operation code-named Sky-hole Patching II. The joint operation by the World Customs Organization and the United Nations Environment Programme...

    • Publication date : 2011/02/07
  • Active, intelligent and smart packaging sales trends

    Visiongain, a business information provider, forecasts that increasing health awareness, rising food and safety concerns and improved purchasing power in emerging economies will drive growth on the active, intelligent and smart packaging market.

    • Publication date : 2013/01/30
  • Phantom Eye completes its second flight

    A liquid-hydrogen-powered unmanned spy plane from Boeing’s Phantom Works has successfully completed its second test flight.

    • Publication date : 2013/06/19
  • Illegal imports of HFCs in Europe

    Honeywell claims that over 10 million tonnes of CO2 equivalent HFCs were illegally imported into the EU in 2015.

    • Publication date : 2016/07/07
    • Subjects: HFCs alternatives
  • Refrigerated transport: truckers’ Delight

    North American truckers are set to upgrade their equipment in line with new regulations and due to strong consumer demands for better food safety. The FDA's hazard analysis critical control points (HACCP) system decrees that shippers and...

    • Publication date : 2006/01/28
  • European legislation and cogeneration

    COGEN Europe has issued a new briefing paper on "European Policy and Legislation affecting Cogeneration", which summarises the most important pieces of legislation relevant to the development of cogeneration in Europe. This document shows that the...

    • Publication date : 2005/01/12
  • Illegal trade in ODS

    Some recent facts show the difficulty to tackle the illegal disposal of CFC appliances and CFCs and HCFCs trading issues: - The German business magazine Capital divulged that CFC-containing refrigeration appliances were discovered in two car...

    • Publication date : 2008/08/12
  • Illegal trade of ODS

    During the ECA network meeting in Turkmenistan (see above), Dr Ezra Clark from the Environmental Investigation Agency (EIA), UK, presented some data on the illegal trade of ozone-depleting substances (ODS). Originally a problem in non-Article 5...

    • Publication date : 2007/05/04
  • Update on illegal HFC trade in Europe

    An EIA investigation highlights the different smuggling routes used to illegally import HFCs into Europe and shows which refrigerants are most frequently sold in this way. 

    • Publication date : 2021/09/07
    • Subjects: Regulation
  • Pakistan confiscates illegal HCFCs

    The Pakistan government ordered the confiscation of illegally imported HCFCs, denying import quotas to seven companies this year.

    • Publication date : 2014/05/28
    • Subjects: Regulation
  • Africa: First Ozone village in Africa

    The Nigerian government announced in August 2009 that it intends to build a revolutionary ozone village in Ogun State. The project will feature locally manufactured prototype ozone-friendly systems, CFC recovery and recycling, and hydrocarbon...

    • Publication date : 2009/12/09
  • Cold storage conditions for fruits and vegetables

    Practical recommendations for the cold storage of over 200 cultivars of fruits, vegetables and herbs (storage temperatures, relative humidity, storage time, controlled atmosphere...

    • Last update : 2023/01/16
    • Langues : French, English
    • Themes : Fruit, Vegetables
  • Liquefied Natural Gas: production process and cold energy recovery

    Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is natural gas that has been cooled to about -160 °C and turned into a liquid to facilitate transportation and storage. A typical LNG supply chain...

    • Last update : 2022/06/20
    • Langues : French, English
    • Themes : LNG and LPG
  • Cryogenics in the pharmaceutical industry: drug design and bioavailability improvement

    Research activities in the pharmaceutical sector focus primarily on developing novel drug formulations which can elicit the desired response upon being administered to the patient...

    • Last update : 2022/11/21
    • Langues : French, English
    • Themes : Freeze-drying in biology and medicine, Cryobiology, cryomedicine: general information
  • For IIR members only

    Ice cream manufacturing, environmental impact and market data

    From a physico-chemical point of view, ice cream is a complex, frozen multiphase mixture. The manufacturing process includes several stages of freezing which are described in this...

    • Last update : 2022/10/12
    • Langues : French, English
    • Themes : Ice creams
  • Additive manufacturing of regenerators for caloric cooling

    In many areas of engineering, additive manufacturing allows the production of complex and multifunctional products that could not be manufactured using traditional methods. In the...

    • Last update : 2022/09/16
    • Langues : French, English
    • Themes : Caloric cooling (magnetocaloric, electrocaloric, elastocaloric and barocaloric cooling)
  • Hydrocarbon refrigerants

    Hydrocarbons such as R290 (propane), R600a (isobutane) or R1270 (propene/propylene) are low GWP non-toxic natural refrigerants with excellent thermodynamic properties. They offer an...

    • Last update : 2022/06/22
    • Langues : French, English
    • Themes : Hydrocarbons, Containment, refrigerant charge reduction
  • Global HFC emissions from the refrigeration sector

    This table shows HFC emissions from the refrigeration sector – including air conditioning – in million tonnes of CO2 equivalent for about 40 countries that are signatories...

    • Last update : 2022/01/20
    • Langues : English
    • Themes : General information on environment (climate change, ozone depletion…)
  • Nanorefrigerants

    Nanorefrigerants are created by adding nanoparticles in suspension to a base refrigerant. They have a thermal conductivity that is 15% to 104% higher than that of the corresponding...

    • Last update : 2022/06/17
    • Langues : English, French
    • Themes : Nanofluids
  • Additive manufacturing of heat exchangers

    In the refrigeration industry, additive manufacturing (colloquially referred to as “3D printing”) makes it possible to fabricate novel, complex and potentially more energy efficient...

    • Last update : 2022/09/07
    • Langues : French, English
    • Themes : Evaporators, condensers and other heat exchangers
  • Environmental impact of the ice cream industry

    This summary document describes the environmental impact of ice cream manufacturing, which is mainly due to the energy consumption and refrigerants used.

    • Last update : 2022/11/17
    • Langues : French, English
    • Themes : General information on environment (climate change, ozone depletion…)