Search results

  • HFCs: diverging opinions regarding phase-out/phase-down

    A report prepared by Michael Kauffeld for the Environmental Investigation Agency (EIA) outlines a timetable specifying dates by which the use of HFCs could be banned in new equipment for each refrigeration and air-conditioning sub-sector, with a...

    • Publication date : 2012/09/06
  • “Loophole” in the US HCFC-22 phase-out plan

    Five of the leading US air-conditioning manufacturers - Carrier, Daikin/McQuay, Trane, Johnson Controls and Lennox - wrote on August 15, 2011 to the EPA calling for an amendment to the Final Rule published at the end of 2009 which "bans the sale...

    • Publication date : 2012/01/12
    • Subjects: Regulation
  • Spray freeze-drying technique for the manufacturing of pharmaceutical products

    Some biopharmaceuticals such as vaccines have a short shelf life and must be handled with care. A recent literature review presents the spray freeze-drying technique as an interesting option for optimising the...

    • Publication date : 2020/12/14
    • Subjects: Technology
  • Jordan phases out CFCs one year ahead of schedule

    Jordan’s national programme for phasing out the use of CFCs, which aimed at disposing 1500 tonnes of these refrigerants was achieved one year ahead of schedule.

    • Publication date : 2012/08/21
    • Subjects: Regulation
  • Lyophilisation market

    The global market for lyophilisation (also known as freeze-drying) is projected to be worth USD 3.26 billion in 2015, spurred by the strong growth of new drugs and efforts to increase clinical approval.

    • Publication date : 2015/06/29
  • The bio-pharma cold chain

    According to Pharmaceutical Commerce’s 2016 Biopharma Cold Chain Sourcebook, spending on refrigerated (2–8°C) drugs is growing about 7% annually, or 41% during the 2014–2020 period.

    • Publication date : 2016/10/13
  • Phase change materials in domestic fridges

    The application of phase-change materials (PCMs) in domestic refrigerators could be a novel solution to improve appliance thermal stability and efficiency.

    • Publication date : 2014/05/05
  • Cold chain self-assessment for pharmacists

    The cold chain is becoming pharmacy’s new challenge. There are an increasing number of health products to be kept at controlled temperatures and regulatory requirements have been reinforced.

    • Publication date : 2013/09/12
  • Phare Tower

    Morphosis's Phare (Lighthouse) Tower is to go up in La Défense, France. Thom Mayne, the Design Director, describes the future landmark building as follows: "Moving around the tower, it appears to shift continually, distinct from different vantage...

    • Publication date : 2007/05/04
  • Lyophilization equipment and services market

    New market report published by Transparency Market Research indicates the global lyophilization equipment and services market valued at USD 2.73 billion in 2013.

    • Publication date : 2014/11/26
  • Dynamic controlled atmosphere for better quality apples

    Dynamic Controlled Atmosphere (DCA) appeared in Canada ten years ago where O2 rates are lowered to 0.5% thanks to a sophisticated system used to monitor fruit quality during the process.

    • Publication date : 2014/03/21
  • National Geographic Society sets an example with green headquarters

    The National Geographic Society is saving 8 to 11% on energy costs, amounting to USD 300 000 per year, following energy efficiency and water conservation upgrades to its headquarters in Washington DC. The Society’s 100-year-old building...

    • Publication date : 2011/08/05
  • A technical day to present the evolutions of the Certicold Pharma label

    On March 22, 2017, the CEMAFROID group gathered health stakeholders for a technical day dedicated to the Certicold Pharma label.

    • Publication date : 2017/04/10
    • Subjects: Regulation
  • Phase-change materials result in huge cost savings

    Phase-change materials (PCMs) are being used in a new building for the molecular engineering department of the University of Washington, in Seattle. The 7150 m² building has PCMs encapsulated in its wall and ceiling panels, and the expectation is...

    • Publication date : 2012/08/14
  • HCFC phase-out is moving forward

    China launched in December 2011 the HCFC Phase-Out Management Plan (HPMP), a USD 270 million project for complete phase-out of use of HCFCs by January 2015.

    • Publication date : 2012/07/26
    • Subjects: Regulation
  • Thermophysical properties of HFC refrigerants

    Thermophysical properties of over 100 HFC refrigerants, including single-component and blends.

    • Last update : 2022/06/17
    • Langues : English
    • Themes : HFCs, HFO et HCFO, Blends
  • Thermophysical properties of HFO refrigerants

    Thermophysical properties of over 50 HFO refrigerants, including single-component and blends.

    • Last update : 2022/06/17
    • Langues : English
    • Themes : HFO et HCFO, Blends
  • Thermophysical properties of hydrocarbon refrigerants

    Thermophysical properties of over 20 hydrocarbon refrigerants, including single-component and blends.

    • Last update : 2022/06/17
    • Langues : English
    • Themes : Hydrocarbons, Blends
  • Cryogenics in the pharmaceutical industry: drug design and bioavailability improvement

    Research activities in the pharmaceutical sector focus primarily on developing novel drug formulations which can elicit the desired response upon being administered to the patient...

    • Last update : 2023/03/10
    • Langues : French, English
    • Themes : Freeze-drying in biology and medicine, Cryobiology, cryomedicine: general information
  • Additive manufacturing of heat exchangers

    In the refrigeration industry, additive manufacturing (colloquially referred to as “3D printing”) makes it possible to fabricate novel, complex and potentially more energy efficient...

    • Last update : 2022/09/07
    • Langues : French, English
    • Themes : Evaporators, condensers and other heat exchangers
  • Ice cream manufacturing, environmental impact and market data

    From a physico-chemical point of view, ice cream is a complex, frozen multiphase mixture. The manufacturing process includes several stages of freezing which are described in this...

    • Last update : 2023/06/30
    • Langues : French, English
    • Themes : Ice creams
  • For IIR members only

    Heat pump stock in Europe

    This table presents the stock of installed heat pumps, the CO2 emissions avoided and the number of jobs in the heat pump sector in Europe.

    • Last update : 2021/12/14
    • Langues : English
    • Themes : Heat pumps, energy recovery: economics and statistics
  • Global warming potential (GWP) of HFC refrigerants

    Using the latest updated data from UNEP’s RTOC 2022 report, we have compiled the 100-year GWP and 20-year GWP values of hydrofluorocarbon-based (HFC) refrigerants. Our table includes...

    • Last update : 2023/09/15
    • Langues : French, English
    • Themes : HFCs
  • Cold storage conditions for fruits and vegetables

    Practical recommendations for the cold storage of over 200 cultivars of fruits, vegetables and herbs (storage temperatures, relative humidity, storage time, controlled atmosphere...

    • Last update : 2023/01/16
    • Langues : French, English
    • Themes : Fruit, Vegetables
  • Cryogenic nitrogen in the food and beverage industry

    The adoption of cryogenic processes in the food and beverage industry is predominantly driven by liquid nitrogen (LIN), and it is the preferred candidate for food chilling and...

    • Last update : 2023/06/09
    • Langues : French, English
    • Themes : Freezing of foodstuffs
  • Hydrocarbon refrigerants

    Hydrocarbons such as R290 (propane), R600a (isobutane) or R1270 (propene/propylene) are low GWP non-toxic natural refrigerants with excellent thermodynamic properties. They offer an...

    • Last update : 2022/06/22
    • Langues : French, English
    • Themes : Hydrocarbons, Containment, refrigerant charge reduction
  • Environmental impact of the ice cream industry

    This summary document describes the environmental impact of ice cream manufacturing, which is mainly due to the energy consumption and refrigerants used.

    • Last update : 2022/11/17
    • Langues : French, English
    • Themes : General information on environment (climate change, ozone depletion…)
  • Liquefied Natural Gas: production process and cold energy recovery

    Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is natural gas that has been cooled to about -160 °C and turned into a liquid to facilitate transportation and storage. A typical LNG supply chain...

    • Last update : 2023/06/23
    • Langues : French, English
    • Themes : LNG and LPG
  • Additive manufacturing of regenerators for caloric cooling

    In many areas of engineering, additive manufacturing allows the production of complex and multifunctional products that could not be manufactured using traditional methods. In the...

    • Last update : 2022/09/16
    • Langues : French, English
    • Themes : Caloric cooling (magnetocaloric, electrocaloric, elastocaloric and barocaloric cooling)
  • Nanorefrigerants

    Nanorefrigerants are created by adding nanoparticles in suspension to a base refrigerant. They have a thermal conductivity that is 15% to 104% higher than that of the corresponding...

    • Last update : 2022/06/17
    • Langues : English, French
    • Themes : Nanofluids