Search results

  • Japan: snow cooling created greater CO2 emissions

    An experiment to ship snow from the north of Japan to help reduce the air conditioning load in Tokyo has created CO2 emissions three times greater than the emissions reduction achieved.

    • Publication date : 2014/02/06
  • GHG emissions in international marine shipping.

    GHG emissions from international shipping increased by 9.6% between 2012 and 2018, according to the Fourth Greenhouse Gas Study published in 2020 by the International Maritime Organization. HFC and HCFC...

    • Publication date : 2021/06/29
    • Subjects: Figures, economy, Environment
  • Unreported HFC-23 emissions

    A report published in Geophysical Research Letters says that Western Europe's emissions of HFC-23 are around twice as high as the officially reported level within the framework of the Kyoto Protocol.

    • Publication date : 2011/12/15
  • Reducing emissions from China’s refrigeration sector

    According to a recent report by the Economist Intelligence Unit, China is responsible for about one third of global emissions from refrigeration. The report presents scenarios for...

    • Publication date : 2021/09/07
    • Subjects: Figures, economy, Regulation, Environment
  • HFC emissions data

    By using atmospheric measurements, the authors of a recent study published in the PNAS have found that the total CO2-equivalent emissions of the five most common HFCs increased from 198 (175–221) Tg-CO2-eq·y–1 in 2007 to 275 (246–304)...

    • Publication date : 2015/08/05
    • Subjects: HFCs alternatives, Figures, economy
  • HFCs: projected emissions

    Two recent studies on projected emissions of HFCs have been published: - US: according to the June 2010 US Climate Action report under the UNFCCC, from 2005 through 2020, total US greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are projected to rise by 4% under a...

    • Publication date : 2011/02/04
  • Europe: GHG emissions

    Starting in 2005, the European Union is to introduce a greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions trading scheme imposing a cap on carbon-dioxide emissions from 15 000 installations across Europe. In the UK, the scheme will cover 46% of total emissions and...

    • Publication date : 2004/04/28
  • France: refrigerant demand and emissions data

    According to the Refrigerant Emissions Inventory – Year 2010 published by Mines ParisTech/Armines/ERIE at the request of French Environment and Energy Management Agency (ADEME), total refrigerant demand was 10 224 tonnes in 2010, including 80%...

    • Publication date : 2012/07/24
    • Subjects: Figures, economy
  • European HFC emissions decreased in 2015

    The European Environment Agency (EEA) published data indicating that European HFC emissions had decreased in 2015.

    • Publication date : 2017/07/03
    • Subjects: HFCs alternatives, Figures, economy
  • Fluorinated gas emissions in Europe

    The European Environment Agency (EEA) recently published its annual report on fluorinated greenhouse gases.

    • Publication date : 2018/03/05
    • Subjects: HFCs alternatives, Figures, economy
  • Zero emissions in the desert

    Eckhard Gerber, a German architect, is to build office towers in Riyadh, Dubai and Bahrain that produce all their own energy. The zero emissions office building has arrived! The 68-storey state-of-the-art 322-m Burj al-Taqa ("Energy Tower") in...

    • Publication date : 2007/11/20
  • Direct CO2 emissions generated by the refrigeration sector in Chile

    As part of its national inventory submitted to the UNFCCC, Chile reported greenhouse gas emission values for the refrigeration and air conditioning sector.

    • Publication date : 2021/08/16
    • Subjects: Developing country, Figures, economy, Environment
  • Recycling could significantly cut down emissions from HFC production

    A team of researchers estimated that with 30% of recycled refrigerants in the annual output, CO2 emissions from the production of R134a could be reduced by about a...

    • Publication date : 2022/02/28
    • Subjects: Environment
  • France: refrigerant demand and emissions data

    According to the Refrigerant Emissions Inventory – Year 2010 recently published by Mines ParisTech/Armines/ERIE at the request of French Environment and Energy Management Agency (ADEME), total refrigerant demand was 10 224 tonnes in 2010,...

    • Publication date : 2012/06/01
    • Subjects: Figures, economy
  • Greenhouse gas emissions in the USA

    During the 2005-2012 period, US greenhouse gas emissions dropped by 10.0% while HFCs rose by 26.2%.

    • Publication date : 2014/08/28
  • Global HFC emissions from the refrigeration sector

    This table shows HFC emissions from the refrigeration sector – including air conditioning – in million tonnes of CO2 equivalent for about 40 countries that are signatories...

    • Last update : 2022/01/20
    • Langues : English
    • Themes : General information on environment (climate change, ozone depletion…)
  • For IIR members only

    Heat pump stock in Europe

    This table presents the stock of installed heat pumps, the CO2 emissions avoided and the number of jobs in the heat pump sector in Europe.

    • Last update : 2021/12/14
    • Langues : English
    • Themes : Heat pumps, energy recovery: economics and statistics
  • Environmental impact of the ice cream industry

    This summary document describes the environmental impact of ice cream manufacturing, which is mainly due to the energy consumption and refrigerants used.

    • Last update : 2022/11/17
    • Langues : French, English
    • Themes : General information on environment (climate change, ozone depletion…)
  • Ice cream manufacturing, environmental impact and market data

    From a physico-chemical point of view, ice cream is a complex, frozen multiphase mixture. The manufacturing process includes several stages of freezing which are described in this...

    • Last update : 2023/06/30
    • Langues : French, English
    • Themes : Ice creams
  • Liquefied Natural Gas: production process and cold energy recovery

    Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is natural gas that has been cooled to about -160 °C and turned into a liquid to facilitate transportation and storage. A typical LNG supply chain...

    • Last update : 2023/06/23
    • Langues : French, English
    • Themes : LNG and LPG
  • Cryogenic nitrogen in the food and beverage industry

    The adoption of cryogenic processes in the food and beverage industry is predominantly driven by liquid nitrogen (LIN), and it is the preferred candidate for food chilling and...

    • Last update : 2023/11/07
    • Langues : French, English
    • Themes : Freezing of foodstuffs
  • Hydrocarbon refrigerants

    Hydrocarbons such as R290 (propane), R600a (isobutane) or R1270 (propene/propylene) are low GWP non-toxic natural refrigerants with excellent thermodynamic properties. They offer an...

    • Last update : 2022/06/22
    • Langues : French, English
    • Themes : Hydrocarbons, Containment, refrigerant charge reduction
  • Global warming potential (GWP) of HFC refrigerants

    Using the latest updated data from UNEP’s RTOC 2022 report, we have compiled the 100-year GWP and 20-year GWP values of hydrofluorocarbon-based (HFC) refrigerants. Our table includes...

    • Last update : 2023/09/15
    • Langues : French, English
    • Themes : HFCs
  • Cryogenics in the pharmaceutical industry: drug design and bioavailability improvement

    Research activities in the pharmaceutical sector focus primarily on developing novel drug formulations which can elicit the desired response upon being administered to the patient...

    • Last update : 2023/03/10
    • Langues : French, English
    • Themes : Freeze-drying in biology and medicine, Cryobiology, cryomedicine: general information
  • Additive manufacturing of heat exchangers

    In the refrigeration industry, additive manufacturing (colloquially referred to as “3D printing”) makes it possible to fabricate novel, complex and potentially more energy efficient...

    • Last update : 2022/09/07
    • Langues : French, English
    • Themes : Evaporators, condensers and other heat exchangers
  • Additive manufacturing of regenerators for caloric cooling

    In many areas of engineering, additive manufacturing allows the production of complex and multifunctional products that could not be manufactured using traditional methods. In the...

    • Last update : 2022/09/16
    • Langues : French, English
    • Themes : Caloric cooling (magnetocaloric, electrocaloric, elastocaloric and barocaloric cooling)