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  • Briefs: CSA

    The Cryogenic Society of America has created and recently launched its Cryogenic Treatment Database: The site provides...

    • Publication date : 2011/02/04
  • NASA’s James Webb Space Telescope

    Cryogenic testing has now been completed for the final 6 primary mirror segments and a secondary mirror that will fly on NASA’s James Webb Space Telescope.

    • Publication date : 2012/08/03
  • CAL - NASA’s Space Cryocooler

    NASA’s new facility, Cold Atom Lab (CAL), expected to reach effective temperatures down to 100 pico-Kelvin (pK), will be used for the study of ultra-cold quantum gases in the microgravity environment on the International Space Station (ISS). (en...

    • Publication date : 2014/07/03
  • NASA tests on composite cryotank successful

    NASA recently completed a complex series of tests on one of the largest composite cryogenic fuel tanks ever manufactured,

    • Publication date : 2015/03/17
  • Supercomputer with advanced cooling system to support NASA moon missions

    The new liquid-cooled Aitken supercomputer will run modeling and simulation workloads for lunar landings.

    • Publication date : 2019/09/30
  • Water desalination thanks to freezing

    A new desalination process involving freezing has been developed and offers an alternative to the shortcomings of other technologies such as distillation or inverted osmosis.

    • Publication date : 2013/08/30
  • Briefs: Lifesaving pocket refrigerator

    During the severe heatwave in Europe in 2003, Uwe Diegel realized that his brother was encountering problems keeping his insulin refrigerated while travelling. So the inventor decided to invent a pocket refrigerator based on the Peltier effect...

    • Publication date : 2011/02/04
  • Reducing post-harvest food losses in sub-Saharan Africa 

    To strengthen the cold chain for fruit and vegetables in sub-Saharan Africa, sustainable measures and the use of precooling are recommended in a review article. 

    • Publication date : 2022/12/15
    • Subjects: Developing country
  • Sub-Saharan milk cooler project awarded USD 1 million

    A University of Georgia engineer received USD 1 million to continue working on a milk cooler designed to help dairy farmers, particularly those in sub-Saharan Africa, who lack access to refrigeration.

    • Publication date : 2014/03/18
  • MAC: CO2 or HFO-1234yf?

    The SAE Alternate Refrigerant Symposium held in Phoenix, USA, on June 10-12, 2008, provided an opportunity for the various stakeholders of the global automotive industry to present their views regarding the next-generation refrigerant in mobile...

    • Publication date : 2008/08/12
  • Impact of heat on school results

    An American study establishes a relationship between rising temperatures and lower school examination results and highlights the importance of air conditioning.

    • Publication date : 2019/04/30
  • Expansion of cold chain facilities in hot countries

    Effective cold-chain logistics are essential for the economic growth of hot countries. In Africa, Asia, as well as the Middle East, various stakeholders are engaged in setting up cold storage refrigeration warehouses and temperature-controlled...

    • Publication date : 2020/02/27
    • Subjects: Developing country
  • Out of ordinary: Chilled Medieval Book

    A 1000-year-old Book of Psalms has been discovered by a construction worker in Ireland and is now stored in refrigeration at the National Museum of Ireland in Dublin. The book was found in a bog and the tannic acid content of the bog is thought to...

    • Publication date : 2007/02/12
  • MAC: SAE considers R1234yf as “safe and effective” and AC5 and AC6 blends as “technically credible”

    The SAE International Cooperative Research Project team has concluded that “R1234yf refrigerant is safe and effective to use in automotive applications. It also concluded that “based on a detailed fault tree analysis, AC6 offers a risk profile...

    • Publication date : 2013/08/27
  • New polymer coating keeps buildings cool

    Researchers from Columbia University have created a passive daytime radiative cooling polymer coating with air voids that act as a spontaneous air cooler.

    • Publication date : 2018/10/18
    • Subjects: Environment
  • Cryogenics in the pharmaceutical industry: drug design and bioavailability improvement

    Research activities in the pharmaceutical sector focus primarily on developing novel drug formulations which can elicit the desired response upon being administered to the patient...

    • Last update : 2023/03/10
    • Langues : French, English
    • Themes : Freeze-drying in biology and medicine, Cryobiology, cryomedicine: general information
  • For IIR members only

    Global cold storage capacity

    This table presents the cold storage capacity in about 50 countries, based on data from the Global Cold Chain Alliance (GCCA).

    • Last update : 2021/12/06
    • Langues : English
    • Themes : Refrigerated storage: economics and statistics
  • Cold storage conditions for fruits and vegetables

    Practical recommendations for the cold storage of over 200 cultivars of fruits, vegetables and herbs (storage temperatures, relative humidity, storage time, controlled atmosphere...

    • Last update : 2023/01/16
    • Langues : French, English
    • Themes : Fruit, Vegetables
  • Liquefied Natural Gas: production process and cold energy recovery

    Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is natural gas that has been cooled to about -160 °C and turned into a liquid to facilitate transportation and storage. A typical LNG supply chain...

    • Last update : 2023/06/23
    • Langues : French, English
    • Themes : LNG and LPG
  • Ice cream manufacturing, environmental impact and market data

    From a physico-chemical point of view, ice cream is a complex, frozen multiphase mixture. The manufacturing process includes several stages of freezing which are described in this...

    • Last update : 2023/06/30
    • Langues : French, English
    • Themes : Ice creams
  • Environmental impact of the ice cream industry

    This summary document describes the environmental impact of ice cream manufacturing, which is mainly due to the energy consumption and refrigerants used.

    • Last update : 2022/11/17
    • Langues : French, English
    • Themes : General information on environment (climate change, ozone depletion…)
  • Additive manufacturing of regenerators for caloric cooling

    In many areas of engineering, additive manufacturing allows the production of complex and multifunctional products that could not be manufactured using traditional methods. In the...

    • Last update : 2022/09/16
    • Langues : French, English
    • Themes : Caloric cooling (magnetocaloric, electrocaloric, elastocaloric and barocaloric cooling)
  • Global warming potential (GWP) of HFC refrigerants

    Using the latest updated data from UNEP’s RTOC 2022 report, we have compiled the 100-year GWP and 20-year GWP values of hydrofluorocarbon-based (HFC) refrigerants. Our table includes...

    • Last update : 2023/09/15
    • Langues : French, English
    • Themes : HFCs
  • Cryogenic nitrogen in the food and beverage industry

    The adoption of cryogenic processes in the food and beverage industry is predominantly driven by liquid nitrogen (LIN), and it is the preferred candidate for food chilling and...

    • Last update : 2023/11/07
    • Langues : French, English
    • Themes : Freezing of foodstuffs
  • Global HFC emissions from the refrigeration sector

    This table shows HFC emissions from the refrigeration sector – including air conditioning – in million tonnes of CO2 equivalent for about 40 countries that are signatories...

    • Last update : 2022/01/20
    • Langues : English
    • Themes : General information on environment (climate change, ozone depletion…)
  • For IIR members only

    Heat pump stock in Europe

    This table presents the stock of installed heat pumps, the CO2 emissions avoided and the number of jobs in the heat pump sector in Europe.

    • Last update : 2021/12/14
    • Langues : English
    • Themes : Heat pumps, energy recovery: economics and statistics
  • Hydrocarbon refrigerants

    Hydrocarbons such as R290 (propane), R600a (isobutane) or R1270 (propene/propylene) are low GWP non-toxic natural refrigerants with excellent thermodynamic properties. They offer an...

    • Last update : 2022/06/22
    • Langues : French, English
    • Themes : Hydrocarbons, Containment, refrigerant charge reduction
  • Additive manufacturing of heat exchangers

    In the refrigeration industry, additive manufacturing (colloquially referred to as “3D printing”) makes it possible to fabricate novel, complex and potentially more energy efficient...

    • Last update : 2022/09/07
    • Langues : French, English
    • Themes : Evaporators, condensers and other heat exchangers
  • Nanorefrigerants

    Nanorefrigerants are created by adding nanoparticles in suspension to a base refrigerant. They have a thermal conductivity that is 15% to 104% higher than that of the corresponding...

    • Last update : 2022/06/17
    • Langues : English, French
    • Themes : Nanofluids